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Richard E. Hughes, James C. Bean and Don B. Chaffin

Concurrent activation of muscles on opposite sides of joints is a common phenomenon. In simple planar mechanical systems, it is easy to identify such an electromyographic pattern as co-contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles. In complex 3-D systems such as the lumbar spine, it is more difficult to precisely identify whether EMG recordings represent co-contraction. Qualitative definitions of antagonist muscles emphasize that their actions wholly oppose the action of the prime movers. The qualitative definition of antagonist muscles was used to formulate a mathematical requirement for there to be co-contraction of agonists and antagonists. It was shown that the definition of co-contraction implies muscle activity beyond what is required to maintain equilibrium. The method was illustrated by classifying EMG recordings made of the lumbar region musculature during tasks involving combined torso extension and axial twisting loads. The method, which identified muscle activity in excess of that required to maintain static equilibrium, could be used to identify conditions in which muscle activation is required for something other than merely maintaining moment equilibrium.

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Molly Yanity

Since 2010, major college athletics departments have expanded a trend of hiring former beat writers to the hybrid position of sportswriter/public relations (PR) practitioner. This case study explored the routines and roles of a former sportswriter in his PR position at the University of Washington. After observing how he moved through social and professional settings and occupational routines, the author identifies 3 themes surrounding his routines. The themes are sport journalist, PR practitioner, and subordinate. Given the historic antagonism between journalists and PR practitioners, the routines are sometimes at odds with one another. The results indicate that the routines affect content while engaging stakeholders.

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Robin S. Vealey, Nick Galli and Robert J. Harmison

significant milestone for the field and as an opportunity for enhanced professional development and personal growth. The professionalization of any field, including sport psychology, is accompanied by concomitant tensions and antagonism that result due to changes in familiar structures and processes (e

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Neil D. Clarke, Darren L. Richardson, James Thie and Richard Taylor

nonselectively blocks adenosine receptors and competitively inhibits the action of adenosine, which during exercise can lower pain perception, increase neuro-excitability, and sustain motor unit firing. 2 Therefore, adenosine receptor antagonism is the leading hypothesis as to how caffeine could have an

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Ju Young Lee

Cleveland,” provides insightful analysis on antagonism in sports, especially that occurring toward officials. This topic has in common the animosities that exist in our society between community members and law enforcement officials such as police officers. Specifically, in sport competitions, incorrect

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R.L. Caughron

ruptures illustrate how sport is a context that produces uniquely powerful religious antagonisms and transmits them across an interrelated set of cultural practices and institutions. (p. 3) Grano goes on to rightly discuss the concept (especially if you have seen European football fans view their favorite

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Martha Saavedra

nationalist discussions across the diaspora. Bhimani introduces the concept of “colonial double-backing” in which global forces of empire produce “recursive forms of exile and antagonism for indigenous people” (p. 106). In this case, the Olympics and the nation state of Russia reproduce cyclical relations of

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Mayur K. Ranchordas, George King, Mitchell Russell, Anthony Lynn and Mark Russell

). Intuitively, the likely ergogenic mechanism of caffeine improving repeated sprinting relates to adenosine receptor antagonism and thus reduction in the perception of pain; possibly mediating the challenge of repeated sprint performance versus a single sprint. This is the first study to show that 200 mg of

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Mark Glaister and Conor Gissane

through the antagonism of adenosine receptors, leading to increases in neurotransmitter release, motor unit firing rates, and pain suppression. 4 However, the ubiquitous nature of adenosine receptors, coupled with their ability to produce differential responses depending on the site of action and the

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Kathryn Henne and Madeleine Pape

, turning more recently to a racialized “North/South antagonism” ( Bohuon, 2015 ). In this section, we introduce new empirical material to consider how contemporary Hyperandrogenism Regulations are racialized and imperialist. We focus our analysis on two dimensions that sports governing bodies claim as