lignans, with classes within the groups. Anthocyanins are a class of the flavonoids. The dietary intake of the main anthocyanins are glycosides of their respective aglycones: pelargonidin, cyanidin, delphinidin, peonidin, petunidin, and malvidin ( Wu et al., 2006 ). Anthocyanins are water soluble and act
Matthew David Cook and Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems
Jason P. Brandenburg and Luisa V. Giles
plant-based foods and beverages. Four dietary polyphenol subgroups exist (lignans, stilbenes, phenolic acids, and flavonoids), with flavonoids being the biggest and most diverse subgroup ( Myburgh, 2014 ). Fruits and vegetables that are red–blue in color contain high levels anthocyanins, a type of
Ian Craig Perkins, Sarah Anne Vine, Sam David Blacker and Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems
We examined the effect of New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract on high-intensity intermittent running and postrunning lactate responses. Thirteen active males (age: 25 ± 4 yrs, height: 1.82 ± 0.07 m, body mass: 81 ± 14 kg, V̇O2max: 56 ± 4 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, v V̇O2max: 17.6 ± 0.8 km∙h-1) performed a treadmill running protocol to exhaustion, which consisted of stages with 6 × 19 s of sprints with 15 s of low-intensity running between sprints. Interstage rest time was 1 min and stages were repeated with increasing sprint speeds. Subjects consumed capsuled NZBC extract (300 mg∙day-1 CurraNZ; containing 105 mg anthocyanin) or placebo for 7 days (double-blind, randomized, crossover design, wash-out at least 14 days). Blood lactate was collected for 30 min postexhaustion. NZBC increased total running distance by 10.6% (NZBC: 4282 ± 833 m, placebo: 3871 ± 622 m, p = .02), with the distance during sprints increased by 10.8% (p = .02). Heart rate, oxygen uptake, lactate and rating of perceived exertion were not different between conditions for the first 4 stages completed by all subjects. At exhaustion, blood lactate tended to be higher for NZBC (NZBC: 6.01 ± 1.07 mmol∙L-1, placebo: 5.22 ± 1.52 mmol∙L-1, p = .07). There was a trend for larger changes in lactate following 15 min (NZBC: -2.89 ± 0.51 mmol∙L-1, placebo: -2.46 ± 0.39 mmol∙L-1, p = .07) of passive recovery. New Zealand blackcurrant extract (CurraNZ) may enhance performance in sports characterized by high-intensity intermittent exercise as greater distances were covered with repeated sprints, there was higher lactate at exhaustion, and larger changes in lactate during early recovery after repeated sprints to exhaustion.
David C. Nieman, Giuseppe Valacchi, Laurel M. Wentz, Francesca Ferrara, Alessandra Pecorelli, Brittany Woodby, Camila A. Sakaguchi and Andrew Simonson
Grove, UT) as described in a recent study ( Nieman et al., 2018b ). The supplement ingredients (US Patent 9,839,624) included the following (in four capsules) and provided 658 mg of total monomeric flavonoids: 200-mg vitamin C (as ascorbyl palmitate), wild bilberry fruit extract with 128-mg anthocyanins
Lucja Pilaczynska-Szczesniak, A. Skarpanska-Steinborn, E. Deskur, P. Basta and M. Horoszkiewicz-Hassan
The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of an increased intake of anthocyanins, contained in chokeberry juice, on the redox parameters in rowers performing a physical exercise during a 1-month training camp. The athletes were randomly assigned to receive 150 mL of chokeberry juice daily, containing 23 mg/100 mL of anthocyanins (supplemented group), or placebo (control group). Before and after the supplementation period, the subjects performed an incremental rowing exercise test. Blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein before each exercise test, 1 min after the test, and following a 24-h recovery period. After the supplementation period, TBARS concentrations in the samples collected 1 min after the exercise test and following a 24-h recovery period were significantly lower in the subjects receiving chokeberry juice than in the control group. In the supplemented group, glutathione peroxidase activity was lower in the samples collected 1 min after the exercise test, and superoxide dismutase activity was lower in the samples taken following a 24-h recovery, as compared to the subjects receiving placebo. These findings indicate that an increased intake of anthocyanins limits the exercise-induced oxidative damage to red blood cells, most probably by enhancing the endogenous antioxidant defense system.
Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems, Stephen David Myers, Mandy Lucinda Gault and Matthew David Cook
Blackcurrant contains anthocyanins, known to influence vasorelaxation and peripheral blood flow. We examined the effects of 7 days intake of Sujon New Zealand blackcurrant powder (6g/day) on the lactate curve, maximum oxygen uptake, and cardiovascular responses at rest and during cycling. Thirteen trained triathletes with >3 yrs experience (8 men, age: 38 ± 8 yrs, body mass: 71 ± 9 kg, BF%: 19 ± 5%, mean ± SD) performed two incremental cycling protocols with recording of physiological and cardiovascular responses (Portapres Model 2). Cardiovascular function was also measured in rest. Experimental design was doubleblind, placebo-controlled, randomized and cross-over (wash-out 4 wks). Data were analyzed with two-tailed t tests and 2-way ANOVA and significance accepted at p < .05. Plasma lactate was lower at 40%, 50%, 60% and 70% of maximum power by 27%, 22%, 17% and 13%. Intensity at 4 mmol·L-1 OBLA was 6% higher with blackcurrant without effect on heart rate and oxygen uptake. Maximum values of oxygen uptake, heart rate and power were not affected by blackcurrant, but obtained with 14% lower lactate. In rest, blackcurrant increased stroke volume and cardiac output by 25% and 26%, and decreased total peripheral resistance by 16%, with no changes in blood pressure and heart rate. Cardiovascular responses during exercise at 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 80% intensity were not affected. Sujon New Zealand blackcurrant powder affects lactate production and/or clearance during exercise. Sujon New Zealand blackcurrant powder affects physiological and cardiovascular responses in rest and during exercise that may have implications for exercise performance.
Rebecca Quinlan and Jessica A. Hill
desirable. Tart cherry juice (TCJ) supplementation is growing in popularity; due to claims, it can aid recovery following damaging exercise due to its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. 3 TCJ contains high concentrations of phytochemicals, including anthocyanins and flavonoids. 4
Chichester, Chichester, UK 2 Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Seven days intake of anthocyanin-rich New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract increased exercise performance and enhanced exercise-induced fat oxidation. Elimination of anthocyanin metabolites can take
Nathan A. Lewis, Ann Redgrave, Mark Homer, Richard Burden, Wendy Martinson, Brian Moore and Charles R. Pedlar
, minerals, vitamins, and energy); and selective use of an antioxidant supplement as a concentrated source of anthocyanins and melatonin (Cherry Active™). Physiological-Testing Results Positive physiological improvements for submaximal and maximal exercise were evident at 4 and 14 months postintervention
Ahmed Ismaeel, Michael Holmes, Evlampia Papoutsi, Lynn Panton and Panagiotis Koutakis
, Montmorency cherry supplementation does seem to play a beneficial role in oxidative stress, muscle damage, and muscle soreness. Montmorency cherries have a high anthocyanin content and have been shown to provide beneficial antioxidant effects ( McCune et al., 2011 ). In a cross-over trial, supplementation