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Changes in Anthropometric and Fitness Characteristics Over a Decade of Young Elite Alpine Ski Racers

Lisa Steidl-Müller, Carolin Hildebrandt, Christoph Ebenbichler, Roland Luchner, Carson Patterson, Erich Müller, Christoph Gonaus, and Christian Raschner

youth ski racing are lacking, even though the importance of such studies was emphasized most recently in a review article on talent development in this sport. 17 Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether anthropometric and fitness characteristics have changed between former (2005

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Young Swimmers’ Classification Based on Kinematics, Hydrodynamics, and Anthropometrics

Tiago M. Barbosa, Jorge E. Morais, Mário J. Costa, José Goncalves, Daniel A. Marinho, and António J. Silva

The aim of this article has been to classify swimmers based on kinematics, hydrodynamics, and anthropometrics. Sixty-seven young swimmers made a maximal 25 m front-crawl to measure with a speedometer the swimming velocity (v), speed-fluctuation (dv) and dv normalized to v (dv/v). Another two 25 m bouts with and without carrying a perturbation device were made to estimate active drag coefficient (CD a). Trunk transverse surface area (S) was measured with photogrammetric technique on land and in the hydrodynamic position. Cluster 1 was related to swimmers with a high speed fluctuation (ie, dv and dv/v), cluster 2 with anthropometrics (ie, S) and cluster 3 with a high hydrodynamic profile (ie, CD a). The variable that seems to discriminate better the clusters was the dv/v (F = 53.680; P < .001), followed by the dv (F = 28.506; P < .001), CD a (F = 21.025; P < .001), S (F = 6.297; P < .01) and v (F = 5.375; P = .01). Stepwise discriminant analysis extracted 2 functions: Function 1 was mainly defined by dv/v and S (74.3% of variance), whereas function 2 was mainly defined by CD a (25.7% of variance). It can be concluded that kinematics, hydrodynamics and anthropometrics are determinant domains in which to classify and characterize young swimmers’ profiles.

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Anthropometrics and Body Composition in East African Runners: Potential Impact on Performance

Martin Mooses and Anthony C. Hackney

Maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), fractional utilization of V̇O2max during running, and running economy (RE) are crucial factors for running success for all endurance athletes. Although evidence is limited, investigations of these key factors indicate that East Africans’ superiority in distance running is largely due to a unique combination of these factors. East African runners appear to have a very high level of RE most likely associated, at least partly, with anthropometric characteristics rather than with any specific metabolic property of the working muscle. That is, evidence suggest that anthropometrics and body composition might have important parameters as determinants of superior performance of East African distance runners. Regrettably, this role is often overlooked and mentioned as a descriptive parameter rather than an explanatory parameter in many research studies. This brief review article provides an overview of the evidence to support the critical role anthropometrics and body composition has on the distance running success of East African athletes. The structural form and shape of these athletes also has a downside, because having very low BMI or body fat increases the risk for relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) conditions in both male and female runners, which can have serious health consequences.

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Determinant Physical Factors of Tennis Serve Velocity: A Brief Review

Joshua Colomar, Francisco Corbi, Quim Brich, and Ernest Baiget

rotations, and upper arm extension and internal rotations are the major contributors to racquet and ball speed. 11 – 13 Besides technical indications, certain anthropometric characteristics have been found to have a positive relation to SV, making these important factors to consider. The strength of

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Anthropometric Profiles of Elite Open-Water Swimmers

Gregory Shaw and Iñigo Mujika

has not been demonstrated. Indeed, to the best of our knowledge, no reports are available on the anthropometric characteristics of elite OW swimmers prior to a World Championship competition since 1991. 1 The goal of this case report was to highlight the anthropometric profile of a group of French and

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Prediction of Recurrent Injury in the Same Competitive Sport Season Following Return-to-Play From an Ankle Sprain

Ryan S. McCann, Kyle B. Kosik, Masafumi Terada, and Phillip A. Gribble

, height, body mass, perceived ankle instability, ankle joint laxity, and power and endurance of ankle musculature between participants that did and did not sustain a subsequent ankle sprain. However, no study has attempted to predict recurrent ankle sprains with demographic, anthropometric, or disease

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Correlations Between Anthropometric Measures and Muscle Thickness Using Ultrasound Imaging

Mark A. Sutherlin, L. Colby Mangum, Jay Hertel, Susan A. Saliba, and Joseph M. Hart

Key Points ▸ Correlations exist between anthropometric measures and transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus muscle thickness, but are influenced by positions and history of low back pain status. ▸ Mass and body mass index were the most consistent normalization variables for the transversus

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Case Study: Body Composition Periodization in an Olympic-Level Female Middle-Distance Runner Over a 9-Year Career

Trent Stellingwerff

implementing a science-based approach to provide a contextual framework for body composition periodization throughout a 9-year international career. To the author’s knowledge, there is very limited normative data on Olympic-level female middle-distance anthropometrics ( Deutz et al., 2000 ; Fleck, 1983 ), and

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Body Mass-Related Predictors of the Female Athlete Triad Among Adolescent Athletes

Katie J. Thralls, Jeanne F. Nichols, Michelle T. Barrack, Mark Kern, and Mitchell J. Rauh

Early detection of the female athlete triad is essential for the long-term health of adolescent female athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess relationships between common anthropometric markers (ideal body weight [IBW] via the Hamwi formula, youth-percentile body mass index [BMI], adult BMI categories, and body fat percentage [BF%]) and triad components, (low energy availability [EA], measured by dietary restraint [DR], menstrual dysfunction [MD], low bone mineral density [BMD]). In the sample (n = 320) of adolescent female athletes (age 15.9± 1.2 y), Spearman’s rho correlations and multiple logistic regression analyses evaluated associations between anthropometric clinical cutoffs and triad components. All underweight categories for the anthropometric measures predicted greater likelihood of MD and low BMD. Athletes with an IBW ≤85% were nearly 4 times more likely to report MD (OR = 3.7, 95% CI [1.8, 7.9]) and had low BMD (OR = 4.1, 95% CI [1.2, 14.2]). Those in <5th percentile for their age-specific BMI were 9 times more likely to report MD (OR 9.1, 95% CI [1.8, 46.9]) and had low BMD than those in the 50th to 85th percentile. Athletes with a high BF% were almost 3 times more likely to report DR (OR = 2.8, 95% CI [1.4, 6.1]). Our study indicates that low age-adjusted BMI and low IBW may serve as evidence-based clinical indicators that may be practically evaluated in the field, predicting MD and low BMD in adolescents. These measures should be tested for their ability as tools to minimize the risk for the triad.

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The Role of Anthropometric Parameters on Single-Leg Balance Performance in Young Sub-Elite Soccer Players

Dirk Krombholz, Luca Daniel, Peter Leinen, Thomas Muehlbauer, and Stefan Panzer

enhance the learning of sports skills ( Paillard, 2017 for a review). In addition, Chiari, Rocchi, and Cappello ( 2002 ) proposed that balance performance is influenced by biomechanical parameters. To identify relevant biomechanical parameters, namely anthropometric variables, research is necessary that