The importance of education in the prevention of doping behaviours has been emphasised both by research (e.g., Backhouse, Patterson, & McKenna, 2012 ) and policy (e.g., the World Anti-Doping Code [WADC], 2015 ). Moreover, the global organisation responsible for coordinating anti-doping efforts
Laurie B. Patterson, Susan H. Backhouse, and Sergio Lara-Bercial
Liam J.A. Lenten, Aaron C.T. Smith, and Ralph-Christopher Bayer
Performance-enhancing substance(s) (PES) use in elite sport has become so endemic that a global law enforcement body was established by International Olympic Committee (IOC) administrators to monitor its use and prosecute athlete transgressors. As established in 1999, the World Anti-Doping Agency
In 2005, collaboration between United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the recently formed World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) resulted in the International Convention against Doping in Sport. 1 The Convention was an impressive feat because it combined anti-doping
Sergei Iljukov, Jukka-Pekka Kauppi, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Juha E. Peltonen, and Yorck O. Schumacher
new anti-doping strategies, as the primary aim of doping is an improvement in athletic performance, which seems to be plateauing in many disciplines. 8 , 9 One of the recent anti-doping strategies is the implementation of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP). 10 The ABP is based on a collection of
Matthew A. Masucci
By Paul Dimeo and Verner Møller. Published 2018 by Routledge , London, United Kingdom. $39.95. 174 pp. ISBN: 978-1138681675 The Anti-Doping Crisis in Sport is essential reading for those interested in understanding the complicated history of antidoping regulation in contemporary sport. Far more
The article provides an analysis of the transition of antidoping policy from a series of relatively discrete processes, confined to individual sports, events, or countries, to a global policy that comprises a complex network of relationships involving governmental and nongovernmental organizations. Regime theory is used to examine the nature of the policy process at the international level, focusing particularly on the difficulties of defining the objective of harmonization and of achieving compliance. The characteristics of the regime are identified, and issues of resource dependence, capacity building, verification of compliance, and the increasing centrality of government to policy implementation are examined. Despite the constant risk of defection and the tensions within the regime, the conclusion is drawn that the regime should not be deemed ineffective. Increasing effectiveness, however, is likely to occur at the cost of progressive marginalization of sports organizations.
Marios Papaloucas, Kyriaki Kyriazi, and Vassilis Kouloulias
Nowadays, antidoping laboratories are improving detection methods to confirm the use of forbidden substances. These tests are based both on direct identification of new substances or their metabolites and on indirect evaluation of changes in gene, protein, or metabolite patterns (genomics, proteomics, or metabolomics). The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) officially monitors anabolic steroids, hormones, growth factors, β-agonists, hormone and metabolic modulators, masking agents, street drugs, manipulation of blood and blood components, chemical and physical manipulation, gene doping, stimulants, narcotics, glucocorticosteroids, and β-blockers. However, several other substances are under review by WAdA. Pheromones accomplish the structure and function of life from its first step, while they have an impact on the body’s performance. Both testosterone and pheromones have an ergogenic effect that could potentially affect an athlete’s performance. The authors share their questions concerning the potential impact of pheromones in sports.
Stephen Moston, Brendan Hutchinson, and Terry Engelberg
One of the implicit justifications for antidoping is that athletes are so committed to winning that they will take performance-enhancing substances regardless of the apparent consequences. Athletes are alleged to be, quite literally, willing to die to win. Support for this claim usually centers on the results of research by physician Bob Goldman, in which athletes were asked to respond to a hypothetical dilemma in which they were offered spectacular success in their chosen sport, but at a heavy price: they would die after five years of glory. In this paper, we examine the origins of this bargain, now popularly referred to as the Goldman dilemma, finding that both the methodology and implications of the original work have repeatedly been described inaccurately in both popular and scientific writings. These errors reflect both poor scholarship and deliberate misuse, where the flawed narrative is used to justify contentious policy decisions.
Nicholas Stanger and Susan H. Backhouse
moral issue is doping. Doping can reflect an antisocial act, particularly if undertaken intentionally, as it can provide an unfair and illegitimate advantage over others ( Kaye & Boardley, 2012 ). Under the World Anti-Doping Code ( World Anti-Doping Agency, 2015 ), it is each athlete’s personal
Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener, and Lars Engebretsen
concern for athletes who compete under an anti-doping code (usually the World Anti-Doping Code, as published by the World Anti-Doping Agency [WADA]) is that supplements can contain prohibited substances that result in an anti-doping rule violation (ADRV). Athletes—and their support teams—may be at risk