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J.A. Goon, A.H. Noor Aini, M. Musalmah, M.Y. Yasmin Anum, W.M. Wan Nazaimoon and W.Z. Wan Ngah

Background:

The biochemical mechanisms involving oxidative stress to explain the relationship between exercise and healthy aging are still unclear.

Methods:

Tai Chi participants and matched sedentary volunteers age 45 and above were enrolled. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities; levels of DNA damage using the comet assay; and malondialdehyde (MDA) and advanced glycation end products (AGE) were determined at 0, 6, and 12 months.

Results:

Tai Chi subjects had decreased normal and increased mildly damaged DNA with elevated GPx activity after 6 months (n = 25). Plasma MDA and AGE concentrations decreased significantly after 12 months (n = 15) accompanied by increased SOD activity. This may be attributed to the hormesis effect, whereby mild induction of oxidative stress at the first 6 months of exercise resulted in stimulation of antioxidant defenses. These parameters were unchanged in the sedentary subjects in the first 6 months (n = 27) except for elevated SOD activity. After 12 months, the sedentary subjects (n = 17) had decreased normal DNA and increased severely damaged DNA with unaltered MDA and AGE levels while SOD and GPx activities were significantly elevated.

Conclusion:

Regular Tai Chi exercise stimulated endogenous antioxidant enzymes and reduced oxidative damage markers.

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Kamal Azizbeigi, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani, Maghsoud Peeri, Hamid Agha-alinejad and Stephen Stannard

This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of progressive resistance-training (PRT) on plasma oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in erythrocytes. Twenty male volunteers were randomly assigned to 2 groups: PRT and control. Blood samples were collected before and after 8 wk of PRT and analyzed for enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in erythrocytes, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde concentration (MDA, an index of lipid per oxidation in plasma). Resistance training commenced with 8 exercises on nonconsecutive days for 8 wk at 50% of estimated 1-repetition maximum (E1RM) and reached 80% E1RM by Week 8. The results showed that PRT significantly increased erythrocyte SOD activity (1,323 ± 212.52 vs. 1,449.9 ± 173.8 U/g Hb, p = .014). Plasma concentration of MDA also decreased (5.39 ± 1.7 vs. 3.67.4 ± 0.7 nmol/ml, p = .030), although TAC (1.42 ± 0.21 vs. 1.61 ± 0.19 mmol/L, p = .1530) and GPx (39.87 ± 11.5 vs. 48.18 ± 14.48 U/g Hb, p = .883) activity did not undergo any considerable changes. Based on these data, the authors conclude that an 8-wk program of PRT strengthens the defensive system of erythrocytes against free-radical damage and therefore can be applied as a useful approach to alleviate oxidative stress.

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Lucja Pilaczynska-Szczesniak, A. Skarpanska-Steinborn, E. Deskur, P. Basta and M. Horoszkiewicz-Hassan

The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of an increased intake of anthocyanins, contained in chokeberry juice, on the redox parameters in rowers performing a physical exercise during a 1-month training camp. The athletes were randomly assigned to receive 150 mL of chokeberry juice daily, containing 23 mg/100 mL of anthocyanins (supplemented group), or placebo (control group). Before and after the supplementation period, the subjects performed an incremental rowing exercise test. Blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein before each exercise test, 1 min after the test, and following a 24-h recovery period. After the supplementation period, TBARS concentrations in the samples collected 1 min after the exercise test and following a 24-h recovery period were significantly lower in the subjects receiving chokeberry juice than in the control group. In the supplemented group, glutathione peroxidase activity was lower in the samples collected 1 min after the exercise test, and superoxide dismutase activity was lower in the samples taken following a 24-h recovery, as compared to the subjects receiving placebo. These findings indicate that an increased intake of anthocyanins limits the exercise-induced oxidative damage to red blood cells, most probably by enhancing the endogenous antioxidant defense system.

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Alfredo Córdova, Antoni Sureda, María L. Albina, Victoria Linares, Montse Bellés and Domènec J. Sánchez

The aim was to determine the levels and activities of the oxidative stress markers in erythrocytes, plasma, and urine after a flat cyclist stage. Eight voluntary male professional trained-cyclists participated in the study. Exercise significantly increased erythrocyte, leukocyte, platelet, and reticulocyte counts. The exercise induced significant increases in the erythrocyte activities of catalase (19.8%) and glutathione reductase (19.2%), while glutathione peroxidase activity decreased significantly (29.3%). Erythrocyte GSSG concentration was significantly increased after exercise (21.4%), whereas GSH was significantly diminished (20.4%). Erythrocyte malondialdehyde levels evidenced a significant decrease 3 h after finishing the stage (44.3%). Plasma malondialdehyde, GSH and GSSG levels significantly decreased after 3 hr recovery (26.8%, 48.6%, and 31.1%, respectively). The exercise significantly increased the F2-isoprostane concentration in urine from 359 ± 71 pg/mg creatinine to 686 ± 139 pg/mg creatinine. In conclusion, a flat cycling stage induced changes in oxidative stress markers in erythrocytes, plasma, and urine of professional cyclists. Urine F2-isoprostane is a more useful biomarker for assessing the effects of acute exercise than the traditional malondialdehyde measurement.

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Levent Cavas and Leman Tarhan

The relationship among the enzyme activities of cardiac markers, the antioxidant defense system, and erythrocyte membrane malonyldialdehyde (MDA) levels related to vitamin-mineral supplementation in swim exercise was investigated. Swimmers aged 11–13 years were divided into 2 separate groups as control and vitamin-mineral supplemented. Swimmers participated in a monthly swimming program (4 times/wk) and swam approximately 2–2.5 km/d. Cardiac markers such as creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase [GOT (AST)], lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in post-training samples were found to be significantly (p < .05) higher than in pre-training samples. Except for GOT (AST), the activity increases in CK, CK-MB, and LDH in female and male supplemented groups were significantly (p < .05) lower than those of control groups during the 1-month period of swim training. Antioxidant enzyme activity increases in the male vitamin-mineral group were significantly (p < .05) higher when compared with the other groups. Post-training MDA levels were significantly (p < .001) higher than pre-training MDA levels in the control groups, whereas no significant (p > .05) differences were found between the vitamin-mineral supplemented groups. Vitamin-mineral supplementation was found to attenuate cardiac and muscle damage markers while also enhancing antioxidant levels and reducing membrane LPO levels in response to 1 month of swim training.

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Trent A. Watson, Lesley K. MacDonald-Wicks and Manohar L. Garg

Exercise has been shown to increase the production of reactive oxygen species to a point that can exceed antioxidant defenses to cause oxidative stress. Dietary intake of antioxidants, physical activity levels, various antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were examined in 20 exercise-trained “athletes” and 20 age- and sex-matched sedentary “controls.” Plasma F2-isoprostanes, antioxidant enzyme activities, and uric acid levels were similar in athletes and sedentary controls. Plasma α-tocopherol and β-carotene were higher in athletes compared with sedentary controls. Total antioxidant capacity tended to be lower in athletes, with a significant difference between male athletes and male controls. Dietary intakes of antioxidants were also similar between groups and well above recommended dietary intakes for Australians. These findings suggest that athletes who consume a diet rich in antioxidants have elevated plasma α-tocopherol and β-carotene that were likely to be brought about by adaptive processes resulting from regular exercise.

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Manfred Lamprecht, Peter Hofmann, Joachim F. Greilberger and Guenther Schwaberger

Purpose:

To assess the effects of an encapsulated antioxidant concentrate (EAC) and exercise on lipid peroxidation (LIPOX) and the plasma antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (Pl-GPx).

Methods:

Eight trained male cyclists (VO2max > 55 ml · kg−1 · min−1) participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, crossover study and undertook 4 cycle-ergometer bouts: 2 moderate exercise bouts over 90 min at 45% of individual VO2max and 2 strenuous exercise bouts at 75% of individual VO2max for 30 min. The first 2 exercise tests—1 moderate and 1 strenuous—were conducted after 4 weeks wash-out and after 12 and 14 days of EAC (107 IU vitamin E, 450 mg vitamin C, 36 mg β-carotene, 100 μg selenium) or placebo treatment. After another 4 weeks wash-out, participants were given the opposite capsule treatment and repeated the 2 exercise tests. Physical exercise training was equal across the whole study period, and nutrition was standardized by a menu plan the week before the tests. Blood was collected before exercise, immediately postexercise, and 30 min and 60 min after each test. Plasma samples were analyzed for LIPOX marker malondialdehyde (MDA) and the antioxidant enzyme pl-GPx.

Results:

MDA concentrations were significantly increased after EAC supplementation at rest before exercise and after moderate exercise (p < .05). MDA concentrations showed no differences between treatments after strenuous exercise (p > .1). Pl-GPx concentrations decreased at all time points of measurement after EAC treatment (p < .05).

Conclusions:

The EAC induced an increase of LIPOX as indicated by MDA and decreased pl-GPx concentrations pre- and postexercise.

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Eyad Alshammari, Shahida Shafi, Jaana Nurmi-Lawton, Andrew Taylor, Susan Lanham-New and Gordon Ferns

Physical activity is associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species and may lead to decreased levels of plasma antioxidants and increased oxidant stress. Some studies have reported that antioxidant supplements can reduce the consequences of oxidative stress during exercise. In this study the authors aimed to assess the chronic effects of exercise on endogenous serum antioxidant enzyme concentrations. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured in adolescent girls who were either competitive gymnasts or sedentary controls. The relationship between age, body-mass index, dietary intake, trace-element status, and serum GPx and SOD was determined. The participants in the study were part of a 3-yr longitudinal investigation of exercise and peak bone-mass development in 38 competitive gymnasts and 40 healthy sedentary adolescent females 8–17 yr of age. Serum GPx and SOD were measured using colorimetric assays, and trace elements were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The mean serum GPx concentrations were significantly higher in the gymnasts than in the sedentary females (157 ± 11.1 vs. 126 ± 8.8 U/ml, p < .05). In contrast, serum SOD concentrations were significantly lower in the gymnasts than in the sedentary group (7.24 ± 2.6 vs. 8.57 ± 2.3 U/ml, p < .05). Serum selenium, zinc, and copper were higher in the physically active group than in the inactive group (0.89 ± 0.03, 10.86 ± 0.39, 14.50 ± 0.50 vs. 0.81 ± 0.03, 10.32 ± 0.28, and 14.38 ± 0.42 μmol/L, respectively), although only serum selenium reached statistical significance (p < .05). The findings show that young female gymnasts have an altered antioxidant enzyme profile compared with their less physically active peers.

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Aiping Chi, Liang Tang, Jing Zhang and Kunru Zhang

Purpose:

To investigate the effects of polysaccharide from Gynostemma pentaphyllum on antioxidant activity in skeletal muscle of mice exercised to exhaustion.

Methods:

Three polysaccharide fractions were obtained from G. pentaphyllum polysaccharide (GPP) and termed GPP1-a, GPP2-b, and GPP3-a. Gas chromatography (GC) and infrared spectrum of the polysaccharides were determined. The fractions were orally administrated to mice once daily for 1 wk. The exercise time to exhaustion was assessed using a forced swim test of mice after a week. The glucose, creatine phosphokinase, and lactic dehydrogenase in serum; the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase; and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glycogen in muscle were determined.

Results:

The results of GC demonstrated that GPP1-a, GPP2-b, and GPP3-a were composed of different monosaccharides with distinct molar ratios. Infrared spectrum showed that the main typicals of GPP1-a and GPP2-b were β-configuration and the main typical of GPP3-a was α-configuration. Among the 3 fractions of GPP, GPP1-a administration significantly prolonged exercise time to exhaustion of mice, increased glycogen level and some of antioxidant enzyme activities, and decreased MDA level in muscle.

Conclusions:

The mechanism by which GPP1-a prolonged exercise time to exhaustion in mice may be associated with scavenging reactive oxygen species excessively produced and further increasing glycogen levels in skeletal muscle.

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Miguel David Ferrer, Pedro Tauler, Antoni Sureda, Pedro Pujol, Franchec Drobnic, Josep Antoni Tur and Antoni Pons

Soccer-associated oxidative stress has barely been studied. The aims of this study were to establish the effect of a soccer training match and the effect of a diet supplementation with a multivitamin complex and coenzyme Q during 3 months of soccer training on the pro-oxidant and antioxidant status of lymphocytes. In a randomized, double-blind trial, 19 male preprofessional soccer players were treated with either an antioxidant nutrient cocktail or placebo for 90 days. After this period the athletes played a soccer match lasting 60 min. All determinations were made under basal conditions before and after the training period and after the match. Basal lymphocyte hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production did not change after the 3 months of training. Catalase activity decreased (about 50%) after the 3 months, whereas glutathione reductase increased its activity (150–200%) both with placebo and in the supplemented group. Basal ascorbate levels were maintained during the training period, whereas α-tocopherol and MDA decreased (about 40%) in both groups. The match increased H2O2 production (180%) in both groups when the lymphocytes were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate, and it also increased MDA levels (150%). Antioxidant enzyme activities and antioxidant vitamin levels were maintained before and after the match. Regular soccer training modifies the lymphocyte strategy to eliminate ROS and increases protection against oxidative damage. A friendly soccer match raises lymphocyte capacity to produce ROS and oxidative damage, but it is not enough to induce a defensive response, thus leading to a situation of postexercise oxidative stress. Supplementation with low doses of antioxidant vitamins and coenzyme Q does not modify the endogenous antioxidant response to training.