et al., 2010 ). Therefore, although the persistence and presence of ROS in large uncontrolled concentrations can lead to oxidative damage and injury, these molecules also play a role in muscle regeneration and repair ( Barbieri & Sestili, 2012 ). Most of the research regarding antioxidant status and
Ahmed Ismaeel, Michael Holmes, Evlampia Papoutsi, Lynn Panton and Panagiotis Koutakis
Andrew W. Subudhi, Scott L. Davis, Ronald W. Kipp and E. Wayne Askew
The goal of this field study was to assess antioxidant status and markers of oxidative damage in elite alpine ski racers during routine training. Subjects included 12 members of the U.S. Men’s Alpine Ski Team attending a 10-day summer training camp. Blood draws were collected at rest and after exercise: (a) prior to training, (b) following 2 days of dry land training, and (c) after 4 days of on-snow skiing. Seven measures of antioxidant status were determined using colorimetric and HPLC methods (Trolox “equivalent antioxidant capacity, uric acid, α-tocopherol, β-tocopherol, total glutathione, cytosolic glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase). Oxidative stress was assessed using 2 markers of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde and lipid hydroperoxides) and 2 markers of protein oxidation (carbonylated total proteins and carbonylated hemoglobin). The results of this study suggest that antioxidant status of elite alpine skiers may decline over a period of intense training. However, elevations in markers of oxidative stress were not evident.
Andrea J. Braakhuis, Will G. Hopkins and Timothy E. Lowe
The beneficial effects of exercise and a healthy diet are well documented in the general population but poorly understood in elite athletes. Previous research in subelite athletes suggests that regular training and an antioxidant-rich diet enhance antioxidant defenses but not performance.
To investigate whether habitual diet and/or exercise (training status or performance) affect antioxidant status in elite athletes.
Antioxidant blood biomarkers were assessed before and after a 30-min ergometer time trial in 28 male and 34 female rowers. The antioxidant blood biomarkers included ascorbic acid, uric acid, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), erythrocyte- superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase. Rowers completed a 7-d food diary and an antioxidant-intake questionnaire. Effects of diet, training, and performance on resting biomarkers were assessed with Pearson correlations, and their effect on exercise-induced changes in blood biomarkers was assessed by a method of standardization.
With the exception of GPx, there were small to moderate increases with exercise for all markers. Blood resting TAC had a small correlation with total antioxidant intake (correlation .29; 90% confidence limits, ±.27), and the exercise-induced change in TAC had a trivial to small association with dietary antioxidant intake from vitamin C (standardized effect .19; ±.22), vegetables (.20; ±.23), and vitamin A (.25; ±.27). Most other dietary intakes had trivial associations with antioxidant biomarkers. Years of training had a small inverse correlation with TAC (−.32; ±.19) and a small association with the exercise-induced change in TAC (.27; ±.24).
Training status correlates more strongly with antioxidant status than diet does.
Josely C. Koury, Astrogildo V. de Oliveira Jr., Emílson S. Portella, Cyntia F. de Oliveira, Gustavo C. Lopes and Carmen M. Donangelo
The purpose of this study was lo compare zinc and copper biochemical indices of antioxidant status and their relationship in elite athletes of different modalities: aerobic with high-impact (triathletes, n = 10 and long-distance runners, n = 12), anaerobic with high-impact (short-distance runners, n = 9), and anaerobic with low-impact (short-distance swimmers, n = 13). The influence of recent dietary intake and body composition was also evaluated. A venous blood sample was drawn 16-20 hr after competition for the following measurements: packed-cell volume and hemoglobin in blood; copper and zinc in plasma and erythrocytes; ceruloplasmin in plasma; superoxide dismutase activity and metal-lothionein in erythrocyles; and erythrocyte osmotic fragility. Zinc and copper intakes were not different in the athlete groups and did not affect the biochemical indices measured. Athletes of the long-distance high-impact aerobic modalities had higher indices of antioxidant protection (erythrocyte zinc, superoxide dismutase activity, and metallothionein) than those of the short-distance low-impact modalities, suggesting that there is adaptation of the antioxidant capacity to the specific training. Significant correlations were observed in all athletes between erythrocyte zinc, superoxide dismutase activity, and metallothionein consistent with the importance of an adequate zinc status in the response of antioxidant mechanisms to intense exercise.
Vitor Teixeira, Hugo Valente, Susana Casal, Franklim Marques and Pedro Moreira
Strenuous physical activity is known to generate reactive oxygen species to a point that can exceed the antioxidant defense system and lead to oxidative stress. Dietary intake of antioxidants, plasma enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase [Gr], and glutathione peroxidase [GPx]) activities, nonenzymatic (total antioxidant status [TAS], uric acid, α-tocopherol, retinol, α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein + zeaxanthin) antioxidants, and markers of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituricacid-reactive substances [TBARS]) and muscle damage (creatine kinase [CK]) were measured in 17 elite male kayakers and canoeists under resting conditions and in an equal number of age- and sex-matched sedentary individuals. Athletes showed increased plasma values of α-tocopherol (p = .037), α-carotene (p = .003), β-carotene (p = .007), and superoxide dismutase activity (p = .002) and a lower TAS level (p = .030). Antioxidant intake (α-tocopherol, vitamin C, and β-carotene) and plasmatic GPx, Gr, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and uric acid levels were similar in both groups. Nevertheless, TBARS (p < .001) and CK (p = .011) levels were found to be significantly higher in the kayakers and canoeists. This work suggests that despite the enhanced levels of antioxidants, athletes undergoing regular strenuous exercise exhibited more oxidative stress than sedentary controls.
Mohamed Romdhani, Nizar Souissi, Yassine Chaabouni, Kacem Mahdouani, Tarak Driss, Karim Chamari and Omar Hammouda
, biomarkers of muscle damage and antioxidant status . Biol Sport . 2019 ; 36 ( 1 ): 55 – 65 . PubMed ID: 30899140 doi: 10.5114/biolsport.2018.78907 30899140 3. Mejri MA , Hammouda O , Zouaoui K , et al . Effect of two types of partial sleep deprivation on Taekwondo players’ performance during
Antoni Aguiló, Pere Tauler, Emilia Fuentespina, Gerardo Villa, Alfredo Córdova, Josep A. Tur and Antoni Pons
The aim of this work was to check the effects of antioxidant supplementation (vitamins E and C, and β-carotene) on the basal iron status of athletes prior to and following their training and competition season (3 months).
Eighteen amateur trained male athletes were randomly distributed in 2 groups: placebo (lactose) and antioxidant supplemented (vitamin E, 500 mg/d; vitamin C, 1 g/d; and β-carotene, 30 mg/d). The study was double blind. Hematological parameters, dietary intake, physical activity intensity, antioxidant status (GSH/GSSG ratio), and basal iron status (serum iron, transferrin, ferritin, and iron saturation index) were determined before and after the intervention trials.
Exercise decreased antioxidant defenses in the placebo group but not in the antioxidant-supplemented group. No changes were found in the number of erythrocytes, hematocrit, or hemoglobin concentration, or in values of serum iron parameters, after taking the antioxidant cocktail for 3 months, in spite of the exercise completed. The placebo group showed a high oxidative stress index, and decreases in serum iron (24%) and iron saturation index (28%), which can neither be attributed to aspects of the athletes’ usual diet, nor to hemoconcentration.
Antioxidant supplementation prevents the decrease of serum iron and the iron saturation index, and a link between iron metabolism and oxidative stress may also be suggested.
Anna Skarpanska-Stejnborn, Lucja Pilaczynska-Szczesniak, Piotr Basta, Ewa Deskur-Smielecka, Donata Woitas-Slubowska and Zdzislaw Adach
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of plant superoxide dismutase extract (GliSODin) supplementation on the balance of oxidants and antioxidants in the serum and erythrocytes of competitive rowers. The double-blinded study included 19 members of the Polish rowing team who were participating in a preparatory camp. Subjects were randomly assigned to the supplemented group (n = 10), who received 2 capsules (500 mg) of GliSODin extract once daily for 6 weeks, or the placebo group (n = 9). At the beginning and end of the study, subjects performed a 2,000-m maximum-effort test on a rowing ergometer. Blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein before each exercise test, 1 min after completing the test, and after a 24-hr restitution period. The following redox parameters were assessed in erythrocytes: superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, and concentrations of thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances. In addition, creatine kinase activity and total antioxidant capacity were measured in plasma samples, lactate levels were determined in capillary blood samples, and C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase concentrations were measured in serum. After supplementation, SOD activity was significantly higher (p = .0037) in the supplemented group than the placebo group, and C-reactive protein was significantly (p = .00001) lower in athletes receiving GliSODin than those in the placebo group. In conclusion, supplementation with an extract rich in SOD activity promoted antioxidant status and protected against increased inflammation in the serum of professional rowers but had no effect on oxidative damage induced by exhaustive exercise.
Rameswar Pal, Som Nath Singh, Kaushik Halder, Omveer Singh Tomer, Awadh Bihari Mishra and Mantu Saha
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of yogic practice on resting metabolism and redox status.
The study was conducted on 64 physically trained male volunteers selected randomly at the Air Force Academy. The yoga group (n = 34) practiced yogasana, pranayama, and meditation for 3 months (February–May 2011) and the control group (n = 30) performed physical training. Antioxidant variables in blood samples along with physiological parameters were estimated before and after 3 months.
No significant difference was noted between baseline data of the control group and yoga group. Reduced glutathione, vitamin C, and vitamin E; the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione; and total antioxidant status were increased significantly following yogic practice. Activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase were significantly increased, whereas activity of glutathione peroxidase was significantly decreased following yogic practice. Oxidized glutathione decreased significantly following yogic practice. A nonsignificant decrease of hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl, malondialdehyde, and blood sugar was noted in the yoga group. Carbon dioxide elimination and peripheral oxygen saturation increased significantly following yogic practice. No significant changes were observed in the control group following 3 months of physical training.
Regular yogic practice can improve resting metabolism and redox status of the practitioner.
Edith Filaire, Alain Massart, Hugues Portier, Matthieu Rouveix, Fatima Rosado, Anne S. Bage, Mylène Gobert and Denys Durand
The aim of this investigation was to assess the effects of 6 wk of eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) supplementation on resting and exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in judoists. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or a capsule of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs; 600 mg EPA and 400 mg DHA). Blood samples were collected in preexercise and postexercise conditions (judo-training session), both before and after the supplementation period. The following parameters were analyzed: α-tocopherol, retinol, lag phase, maximum rate of oxidation (Rmax) during the propagating chain reaction, maximum amount of conjugated dienes (CDmax) accumulated after the propagation phase, nitric oxide (NO) and malondyaldehide (MDA) concentrations, salivary glutathione peroxidase activity, and the lipid profile. Dietary data were collected using a 7-day dietary record. A significant interaction effect between supplementation and time (p < .01) on triglycerides was noted, with values significantly lower in the n-3 long-chain-PUFA (LCPUFA) group after supplementation than in the placebo group. Significant interaction effects between supplementation and time on resting MDA concentrations and Rmax were found (p = .03 and p = .04, respectively), with elevated values in the n-3 LCPUFA group after supplementation and no change in the placebo group’s levels. The authors observed a significantly greater NO and oxidative-stress increase with exercise (MDA, Rmax, CDmax, and NO) in the n-3 LCPUFA group than with placebo. No main or interaction effects were found for retinol and α-tocopherol. These results indicate that supplementation with n-3 LCPUFAs significantly increased oxidative stress at rest and after a judo-training session.