, For more than a quarter of a century your country has had one of the most energetic and effective anti-apartheid movements … for our struggle in the fields of economic, cultural, and sports relations. We, therefore, salute your sportspeople, especially the rugby players. 2 Mandela made similar
developed from these occasional encounters. During the apartheid era (1948–1988), however, a relatively obscure wrestling exchange program, the Oregon Wrestling Cultural Exchange (OWCE), contrary to the dictates of the Amateur Athletics Association (AAU) and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA
March L. Krotee
The South African government’s socially based policy of segregation and discrimination, or “apartheid,” has caused tremendous external, as well as internal, pressures to reverse the government’s inhumane treatment of its repressed populace. Until recently none of the pressures have been more forceful than those evoked by the sporting world and the United Nations. Since 1960, these forces have served to isolate South Africa from most international sports competitions, including the Olympic Games. At one juncture, various leanings in apartheid policy seemed to point toward a tilt in attitudinal posture not only in regard to sport but to various related apartheid conduct. Recent events, however, have elucidated a continued dominant posture concerning South Africa’s all-encompassing socially repressive apartheid practice. It appears that, unless the South African government initiates swift and salient apartheid expiration, the perilous game they are playing may get out of hand.
During the last 2 years the campaign against apartheid sport has taken a new turn, shifting from the blanket boycott of “no normal sport in an abnormal society” to a more carefully nuanced “two-track” strategy, which attempts to strengthen nonracial sport in South Africa while maintaining the international quarantine of proapartheid establishment sport. These efforts are being mounted within the highly fluid dynamic of a society-wide assault on the structures of racist domination. This paper examines ongoing changes in South African sport, the new strategy and organizations developed by the liberation movement in response to the changes, and the promise and problems of the future. It is argued that the antiapartheid campaign provides an important example of effective human intervention in the sphere of modem sport.
Cynthia Fabrizio Pelak
This study examines shifting race relations within one of South Africa’s most popular and fastest growing sports—women’s netball. Drawing on political opportunity and collective identity theories as articulated by social movement scholars, this article develops an analytical strategy to elucidate how athletes and sport administrators can serve as agents of social change. This analysis relies on interview, survey, and archival data collected during 1999 and 2000. The findings show that netball athletes and administrators are contributing to nation building in post-apartheid South Africa by constructing new collective identities across historical racial boundaries.
Maxine Grace Hunter
John Nauright and David Black
Research The Popular Front and the 1936 Olympics Bruce Kidd 5 1980 11 1 1 18 10.1123/cjhspe.11.1.1 The United Nations and the Anti–Apartheid in Sport Movement Maxine Grace Hunter 5 1980 11 1 19 35 10.1123/cjhspe.11.1.19 Sport in the Bayeux Tapestry John Marshall Carter 5 1980 11 1 36 60 10
.1.19 Injured Distance Runners: A Case of Identity Work as Self-Help John Hockey * 3 2005 22 1 38 58 10.1123/ssj.22.1.38 Athletes as Agents of Change: An Examination of Shifting Race Relations Within Women’s Netball in Post-Apartheid South Africa Cynthia Fabrizio Pelak * 3 2005 22 1 59 77 10.1123/ssj.22
Struggle against Apartheid Sport Bruce Kidd * 3 1991 8 1 33 46 10.1123/ssj.8.1.33 Structural Variables That Offer Explanatory Power for the Underrepresentation of Women Coaches Since Title IX: The Case of Homologous Reproduction Jane Marie Stangl * Mary Jo Kane * 3 1991 8 1 47 60 10.1123/ssj.8