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Dariush Sheikholeslami-Vatani, Slahadin Ahmadi and Hassan Faraji

Aging is a physiological process that adversely affects most biological functions and results in reduced resistance to cellular stress. Furthermore, aging is characterized by an increased production of free radicals in several tissues, which might promote systemic cellular apoptosis followed by

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Vinicius Coneglian Santos, Adriana Cristina Levada-Pires, Sâmia Rocha Alves, Tânia Cristina Pithon-Curi, Rui Curi and Maria Fernanda Cury-Boaventura


To investigate the effects of docosahexaenoic-(DHA)-rich fish oil (FO) supplementation on lymphocyte function before and after a marathon race.


Twenty-one athletes participated in this study. Eight marathon runners were supplemented with 3 g of FO daily for 60 d (FO group), and 13 athletes were not supplemented (C group). The following measures of lymphocytes were taken before and after the marathon: cell proliferation, cytokine production (IL-2, IL-10, TNF-α, and IL-4), and signs of cell death.


In the C group, the marathon had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation, DNA fragmentation, or mitochondrial membrane polarization; however, the marathon increased phosphatidylserine externalization (by 2.5-fold), induced a loss of plasma membrane integrity (by 20%), and decreased IL-2, TNF-α, and IL-10 production (by 55%, 95%, and 50%, respectively). FO supplementation did not prevent lymphocyte death induced by the marathon, as indicated by cell viability, DNA fragmentation, and phosphatidylserine externalization. However, FO supplementation increased lymphocyte proliferation before and after the marathon, and before the race, FO supplementation decreased IL-2, TNF-α, and IL-10 production in concanavalin-A-stimulated lymphocytes (by 55%, 95%, and 58%, respectively) compared with cells from the C group. The production of cytokines was not altered before or after the race in the FO group.


DHA-rich FO supplementation increased lymphocyte proliferation and prevented a decrease in cytokine production, but it did not prevent lymphocyte death induced by participation in the marathon. Overall, DHA rich-FO supplementation has beneficial effects in preventing some of the changes in lymphocyte function induced by marathon participation.

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Matti Hyvärinen, Sarianna Sipilä, Janne Kulmala, Harto Hakonen, Tuija H. Tammelin, Urho M. Kujala, Vuokko Kovanen and Eija K. Laakkonen

including the tests for 6-min walk distance, knee extension force, vertical jump height, and grip strength. In addition, a test–retest reliability analysis was performed. Methods Cohort Description Cross-sectional baseline data of the Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis study were analyzed. The study

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Geoffrey Goldspink and Shi Yu Yang

For some time, it has been appreciated that muscle mass is regulated locally as well as systemically. We have cloned the cDNA of two isoforms of IGF-1, which are derived from the IGF-1 gene by alternate splicing. The expression of one of these was only detectable after mechanical stimulation. For this reason, this has been called mechano growth factor (MGF). The MGF is not glycosylated, is smaller, and has a shorter half-life in the unbound state than the systemic liver type IGF-1. As the result of a reading frame shift the MGF peptide also has a different C terminal sequence and thus has different binding protein/receptor affinities. Another splice variant (muscle L.IGF-I) is expressed in muscle during rest but is also upregulated by exercise. The latter is similar to the systemic liver type IGF-1. The evidence suggests that MGF has a high potency for inducing local protein synthesis and preventing apoptosis and therefore has an important role in local tissue repair and remodeling. Our physiological experiments show that stretch and particularly stretch combined with electrical stimulation, rather than stimulation alone are important in inducing MGF expression. The mechanotransduction mechanism is believed to involve the muscle cytoskeleton. During aging, the production of growth hormone and IGF-1 by the liver declines markedly. The discovery of MGF and muscle IGF-1 provides a link between physical activity and gene expression. This underlines the need for the elderly to remain active as the locally produced growth factors supplement the circulating IGF-1 levels.

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Michal Botek, Jakub Krejčí, Andrew J. McKune and Barbora Sládečková

, Lazzer S . Effects of hydrogen rich water on prolonged intermittent exercise . J Sports Med Phys Fitness . 2018 ; 58 : 612 – 621 . PubMed ID: 28474871 10. Alack K , Krüger K , Weiss A , et al . Aerobic endurance training status affects lymphocyte apoptosis sensitivity by induction of

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ZhiWei Liu, Ting Chen, Mingkang Shen, Kai Li, ChunJie Ma, Antonnette Ketlhoafetse and XiangYun Liu

and reduced fat content were observed. Rat experiments have shown that exercise alters sex hormones and their receptors and maintains the balance between cell apoptosis and proliferation in the prostate ( Teixeira et al., 2012 ). In this study, we found that Yi Jin Jing exercise may increase the

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André L. Estrela, Aline Zaparte, Jeferson D. da Silva, José Cláudio Moreira, James E. Turner and Moisés E. Bauer

), which in middle-aged or elderly individuals would be superimposed on the age-associated increase in inflammation, could exacerbate the decline in immune function known as “immunosenescence” ( Simpson et al., 2016 ; Turner, 2016 ). In addition, lymphocyte apoptosis was correlated with exercise intensity

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Renato Sobral Monteiro-Junior, Paulo de Tarso Maciel-Pinheiro, Eduardo da Matta Mello Portugal, Luiz Felipe da Silva Figueiredo, Rodrigo Terra, Lara S. F. Carneiro, Vinícius Dias Rodrigues, Osvaldo J. M. Nascimento, Andrea Camaz Deslandes and Jerson Laks

apoptosis. 40 – 46 The TNF-α has a strong correlation with chronic diseases such as diabetes, arthritis, and cancer. 47 – 53 Moreover, continuous release of this cytokine is different in the elderly and younger people. 50 Meanwhile IL-6 and TNF-α are primarly released by immune cells and adipocytes, CRP

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Trent J. Herda, Philip M. Gallagher, Jonathan D. Miller, Matthew P. Bubak and Mandy E. Parra

that underwent diet-induced obesity despite similar levels of physical activity. The authors report that increased adiposity triggered cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α release that leads to apoptosis and atrophy of skeletal muscle. Subsequently, children with greater intramuscular adiposity may undergo

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Emily R. Hunt, Shelby E. Baez, Anne D. Olson, Timothy A. Butterfield and Esther Dupont-Versteegden

satellite cell abundance that may play a role in modulating the muscle environment. 32 When applied immediately following damaging exercise, massaged muscles have demonstrated a decrease in the migration of inflammatory cells including damaging neutrophils and a reduction of cell-mediated apoptosis. 33