Although the field of applied sport psychology has developed, it faces further challenges on its way toward gaining greater professional status. The following principal criteria of professionalism are proposed as a test of such status: (a) provides an important public service, (b) has a knowledge-base underpinning, (c) has organizational regulation, (d) has a distinct ethical dimension, and (e) has professional autonomy. This article undertakes to explore the nature of implications for practice and the extent to which the suggested principal criteria justify a distinctive applied sport psychology profession. In doing so, we hope to stimulate debate on these and other issues in order that an even greater professionalization of our applied discipline may emerge.
Stacy Winter and David J. Collins
William B. Strean and Glyn C. Roberts
Many debates have raged about professional issues in sport psychology, but the research aspect of applied sport psychology has received relatively little attention. In an effort to stimulate thinking about research, this paper discusses the aims of science, the underlying philosophy of science issues that impinge on sport psychology research, and current methodological controversies. The paper concludes with suggestions for future directions for research in applied sport psychology, and implications for consulting are addressed.
Robert M. Nideffer, Peter DuFresne, David Nesvig and Dennis Selder
Applied sport psychology is a field that is still in search of a definition. This article examines some of the ethical issues involved in the provision of psychological services to athletes and coaches. Observations are made regarding the types of services that sport psychologists are offering. The need for the development of applied internship experiences is emphasized.
Matthew P. Martens, Michael Mobley and Samuel J. Zizzi
One of the challenges facing the field of applied sport psychology involves addressing the needs of athletes of various racial/ethnic backgrounds. An important step in facing this challenge is providing sport psychology graduate students with training in multicultural issues. A review of current models of sport psychology graduate training reveals a lack of emphasis on multicultural training. In this article we offer a description of multicultural training. We also provide a rationale for its inclusion in sport psychology programs and present several models and ideas for implementing multicultural training.
Jim Taylor, Richard Horevitz and Gloria Balague
The present paper examines the value of hypnosis in applied sport psychology. The following issues will be addressed: (a) what is hypnosis?, (b) theoretical perspectives on hypnosis, (c) hypnotizability, (d) factors influencing the effectiveness of hypnosis, (e) misconceptions and concerns about hypnosis, (f) the hypnotic process, (g) research on hypnosis and athletic performance, (h) uses in applied sport psychology, and (i) training in hypnosis. These issues will be considered with respect to the particular needs of athletes and the specific demands of sport.
Jack C. Watson II, Samuel J. Zizzi, Edward F. Etzel and John R. Lubker
The applied sport psychology supervision experiences of student and professional members of AAASP (N = 313) were surveyed. The results revealed that of those who provide applied sport psychology consultation, students were more likely than professionals to receive supervision and to receive weekly supervision. However, both groups received equal amounts of supervision and had case management as the primary component of their supervision. AAASP professional members providing supervision were more likely to hold certified consultant and licensure status than those who did not provide supervision. Only 22.4% of professionals reported providing applied sport psychology supervision, 75.9% of whom had little or no training in supervision. No differences were found in the amount, type, and quality of supervision provided to students from physical education/sport science programs and those in psychology programs.
The present article addresses some of the critical issues that are involved in the development of a successful career in applied sport psychology by offering a three-phase model of career direction, development, and opportunities. In particular, educational direction and training, supplemental experience, and sport, exercise, or health involvement are considered. Specific concerns related to these areas are discussed relative to the enhancement of career development and opportunities.
This article explores the challenges of building a successful private consulting practice in sport psychology. The author examines the extant literature on the experiences of recent graduates as they enter the field of applied sport psychology and also describes how his own educational and early career experiences have shaped his practice. A four-part approach to consulting with athletes is outlined, along with detailed information regarding practice development, clientele identification, and fee structures. The personal qualities essential for creating a successful consulting practice in sport psychology are also explored. Finally, a five-stage model of career development provides guidelines for maintaining and growing a successful consulting practice.
Matthew D. Bird and Brandonn S. Harris
Association for Applied Sport Psychology (AASP) Ethics Code states that members should take “reasonable precautions to verify the privacy and confidentiality of electronic communications” ( AASP, 2011 ). Along with understanding confidentiality issues, possessing the necessary competency to utilize specific
Rory Mack, Jeff Breckon, Joanne Butt and Ian Maynard
The purpose of this study was to explore how sport and exercise psychologists working in sport understand and use motivational interviewing (MI). Eleven practitioners participated in semistructured interviews, and inductive thematic analysis identified themes linked to explicit use of MI, such as building engagement and exploring ambivalence to change; the value of MI, such as enhancing the relationship, rolling with resistance and integrating with other approaches; and barriers to the implementation of MI in sport psychology, such as a limited evidence-base in sport. Findings also indicated considerable implicit use of MI by participants, including taking an athlete-centered approach, supporting athlete autonomy, reflective listening, demonstrating accurate empathy, and taking a nonprescriptive, guiding role. This counseling style appears to have several tenets to enhance current practice in sport psychology, not least the enhancement of therapeutic alliance.