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Helen M. Binkley and Lauren E. Rudd

physician to carefully select individualized exercise programs and to gradually increase their activity level over time as health conditions allow. These professional recommendations are very applicable to and for PM women. Aquatic exercise (AE) has become one of the popular methods for exercise and

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Yaser Alikhajeh, Elyas Barabadi and Gholam Rasul Mohammad Rahimi

numerous unique characteristics, which make it a desirable exercise medium, leading to the proposal that an aquatic exercise (AE) program may offer extensive benefit. The physical characteristics of water, like buoyancy and surface tension, can provide a unique environment compared with land-based activity

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Rodrigo Sudatti Delevatti, Ana Carolina Kanitz, Cláudia Gomes Bracht, Salime Donida Chedid Lisboa, Elisa Corrêa Marson, Thaís Reichert, Vitória Bones and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

patients and aquatic exercise trainers until the beginning of the interventions. Due to the specific features of each group, it was not possible to blind the patients and exercise trainers. However, all outcome evaluators were blinded during the study. Aquatic Interventions (AERO and COMBI) Both aerobic

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Cathy M. Arnold and Robert A. Faulkner

Objective:

To evaluate the effect of aquatic exercise and education on fall risk factors in older adults with hip osteoarthritis (OA).

Method:

Seventy-nine adults, 65 years of age or older with hip OA and at least 1 fall risk factor, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: aquatics and education (AE; aquatic exercise twice a wk with once-a-wk group education), aquatics only (A; 2 wk aquatic exercise) and control (C; usual activity). Balance, falls efficacy, dual-task function, functional performance (chair stands), and walking performance were measured pre- and postintervention or control period.

Results:

There was a significant improvement in fall risk factors (full-factorial MANCOVA, baseline values as covariates; p = .038); AE improved in falls efficacy compared with C and in functional performance compared with A and C.

Conclusion:

The combination of aquatic exercise and education was effective in improving fall risk factors in older adults with arthritis.

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Billy Chun-Lung So, Calvin Hong-Nin Yuen, Ken Long-Hin Tung, Sheena Lam, Sammy Lan Cheng, Zina Wing-Lam Hung, Rainy Wai-Kwan Leung and Grace Pui-Yuk Szeto

Aquatic exercise has been demonstrated to have numerous benefits to the human body, such as improving balance, muscle strength, and functional abilities. 1 It is a popular form of therapy among different kinds of patients with musculoskeletal problems, such as low back pain and osteoarthritis

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Thaís Reichert, Rodrigo Sudatti Delevatti, Alexandre Konig Garcia Prado, Natália Carvalho Bagatini, Nicole Monticelli Simmer, Andressa Pellegrini Meinerz, Bruna Machado Barroso, Rochelle Rocha Costa, Ana Carolina Kanitz and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

AC , Kruel LF . Effects of aquatic exercise on muscle strength in young and elderly adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials [published online ahead of print August 26, 2016]. J Strength Cond Res . 2016 . doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001595. 10.1519/JSC.0000000000001595

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Saowaluck Suntraluck, Hirofumi Tanaka and Daroonwan Suksom

land (i.e., walking and cycling), is an important nonpharmacological strategy for improving endothelial function ( Zoppini et al., 2006 ), arterial stiffness ( Yokoyama et al., 2004 ), and glycemic control ( Asa, Maria, Katharina, & Bert, 2012 ) in patients with diabetes. Aquatic exercise can be an

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Rory Suomi and Susan Lindauer

The purpose of this study was to ascertain the effect of Arthritis Foundation Aquatic Program (AFAP) exercises on strength and range of motion (ROM) measures in women with arthritis. Exercise group (EX) subjects (n = 17) trained three times a week for 6 weeks in AFAP classes. Pre- and posttest isometric strength and ROM tests were conducted on shoulder and hip abduction movements on both limbs. For hip abduction. EX subjects made significant increases in isometric strength and ROM measures ranging from 13.0 to 17.0%. No significant changes in strength or ROM measures for shoulder abduction were found for the EX group. The control group (n = 10) demonstrated no significant changes in isometric or ROM measures for either joint test. The basic 6-week AFAP protocol appears sufficient to induce strength and ROM changes in joints affected by arthritis but may not be sufficient to induce similar changes for joint motions not affected by arthritis.

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Helen Binkley and Traci Schroyer

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Lesley J. White, Rudolph H. Dressendorfer, Eric Holland, Sean C. McCoy and Michael A. Ferguson

We examined the acute effect of cold-water temperature on post-exercise energy intake (EI) for 1 h. In a randomized, crossover design, 11 men (25.6 ± 5 y) exercised for 45 min on a submersed cycle ergometer at 60 ± 2% VO2max in 33°C (neutral) and 20° (cold) water temperatures, and also rested for 45 min (control). Energy expenditure (EE) was determined using indirect calorimetry before, during, and after each condition. Following exercise or rest, subjects had free access to a standard assortment of food items of known caloric value. EE was similar for the cold and neutral water conditions, averaging 505 ± 22 (± standard deviation) and 517 ± 42 kcal, respectively (P = NS). EI after the cold condition averaged 877 ± 457 kcal, 44% and 41% higher (P < 0.05) than for the neutral and resting conditions, respectively. Cold-water temperature thus stimulated post-exercise EI. Water temperature warrants consideration in aquatic programs designed for weight loss.