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Helen M. Binkley and Lauren E. Rudd

physician to carefully select individualized exercise programs and to gradually increase their activity level over time as health conditions allow. These professional recommendations are very applicable to and for PM women. Aquatic exercise (AE) has become one of the popular methods for exercise and

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Cathy M. Arnold and Robert A. Faulkner

Objective:

To evaluate the effect of aquatic exercise and education on fall risk factors in older adults with hip osteoarthritis (OA).

Method:

Seventy-nine adults, 65 years of age or older with hip OA and at least 1 fall risk factor, were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: aquatics and education (AE; aquatic exercise twice a wk with once-a-wk group education), aquatics only (A; 2 wk aquatic exercise) and control (C; usual activity). Balance, falls efficacy, dual-task function, functional performance (chair stands), and walking performance were measured pre- and postintervention or control period.

Results:

There was a significant improvement in fall risk factors (full-factorial MANCOVA, baseline values as covariates; p = .038); AE improved in falls efficacy compared with C and in functional performance compared with A and C.

Conclusion:

The combination of aquatic exercise and education was effective in improving fall risk factors in older adults with arthritis.

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Billy Chun-Lung So, Calvin Hong-Nin Yuen, Ken Long-Hin Tung, Sheena Lam, Sammy Lan Cheng, Zina Wing-Lam Hung, Rainy Wai-Kwan Leung and Grace Pui-Yuk Szeto

Aquatic exercise has been demonstrated to have numerous benefits to the human body, such as improving balance, muscle strength, and functional abilities. 1 It is a popular form of therapy among different kinds of patients with musculoskeletal problems, such as low back pain and osteoarthritis

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Thaís Reichert, Rodrigo Sudatti Delevatti, Alexandre Konig Garcia Prado, Natália Carvalho Bagatini, Nicole Monticelli Simmer, Andressa Pellegrini Meinerz, Bruna Machado Barroso, Rochelle Rocha Costa, Ana Carolina Kanitz and Luiz Fernando Martins Kruel

AC , Kruel LF . Effects of aquatic exercise on muscle strength in young and elderly adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials [published online ahead of print August 26, 2016]. J Strength Cond Res . 2016 . doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000001595. 10.1519/JSC.0000000000001595

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Saowaluck Suntraluck, Hirofumi Tanaka and Daroonwan Suksom

land (i.e., walking and cycling), is an important nonpharmacological strategy for improving endothelial function ( Zoppini et al., 2006 ), arterial stiffness ( Yokoyama et al., 2004 ), and glycemic control ( Asa, Maria, Katharina, & Bert, 2012 ) in patients with diabetes. Aquatic exercise can be an

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Rory Suomi and Susan Lindauer

The purpose of this study was to ascertain the effect of Arthritis Foundation Aquatic Program (AFAP) exercises on strength and range of motion (ROM) measures in women with arthritis. Exercise group (EX) subjects (n = 17) trained three times a week for 6 weeks in AFAP classes. Pre- and posttest isometric strength and ROM tests were conducted on shoulder and hip abduction movements on both limbs. For hip abduction. EX subjects made significant increases in isometric strength and ROM measures ranging from 13.0 to 17.0%. No significant changes in strength or ROM measures for shoulder abduction were found for the EX group. The control group (n = 10) demonstrated no significant changes in isometric or ROM measures for either joint test. The basic 6-week AFAP protocol appears sufficient to induce strength and ROM changes in joints affected by arthritis but may not be sufficient to induce similar changes for joint motions not affected by arthritis.

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Helen Binkley and Traci Schroyer

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Lesley J. White, Rudolph H. Dressendorfer, Eric Holland, Sean C. McCoy and Michael A. Ferguson

We examined the acute effect of cold-water temperature on post-exercise energy intake (EI) for 1 h. In a randomized, crossover design, 11 men (25.6 ± 5 y) exercised for 45 min on a submersed cycle ergometer at 60 ± 2% VO2max in 33°C (neutral) and 20° (cold) water temperatures, and also rested for 45 min (control). Energy expenditure (EE) was determined using indirect calorimetry before, during, and after each condition. Following exercise or rest, subjects had free access to a standard assortment of food items of known caloric value. EE was similar for the cold and neutral water conditions, averaging 505 ± 22 (± standard deviation) and 517 ± 42 kcal, respectively (P = NS). EI after the cold condition averaged 877 ± 457 kcal, 44% and 41% higher (P < 0.05) than for the neutral and resting conditions, respectively. Cold-water temperature thus stimulated post-exercise EI. Water temperature warrants consideration in aquatic programs designed for weight loss.

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Susana M. Soares, Ricardo J. Fernandes, J. Leandro Machado, José A. Maia, Daniel J. Daly and João P. Vilas-Boas

Context:

It is essential to determine swimmers’ anaerobic potential and better plan training, understanding physiological effects of the fatigue.

Purpose:

To study changes in the characteristics of the intracyclic velocity variation during an all-out 50-m swim and to observe differences in speed and stroking parameters between these changes.

Methods:

28 competitive swimmers performed a 50-m front-crawl all-out test while attached to a speedometer. The velocity–time (v[t]) curve off all stroke cycles was analyzed per individual using a routine that included a wavelet procedure, allowing the determination of the fatigue thresholds that divide effort in time intervals.

Results:

One or 2 fatigue thresholds were observed at individual level on the v(t) curve. In males, when 1 fatigue threshold was identified, the mean velocity and the stroke index dropped (P < .05) in the second time interval (1.7 ± 0.0 vs 1.6 ± 0.0 m/s and 3.0 ± 0.2 vs 2.8 ± 0.3 m/s, respectively). When 2 fatigue thresholds were identified, the mean velocity of the first time interval was higher than that of the third time interval (P < .05), for both male (1.7 ± 0.0 vs 1.6 ± 0.1 m/s) and female (1.5 ± 0.1 vs 1.3 ± 0.1 m/s) swimmers.

Conclusion:

One or 2 fatigue thresholds were found in the intracyclic velocity-variation patterns. Concurrently, changes in velocity and stroke parameters were also observed between time intervals. This information could allow coaches to obtain new insights into delaying the degenerative effects of fatigue and maintain stable stroke-cycle characteristics over a 50-m event.

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Carlos Ayán, Paulo Carvalho, Silvia Varela and José María Cancela

, compressive joint forces are lower. 9 Second, water immersion decreases axial loading and, through the effects of buoyancy, allows for the performance of movements that may be difficult or impossible on land; thus, aquatic exercise may be considered a popular and appealing activity for middle-aged women, 10