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Talin Louder, Dennis Dolny and Eadric Bressel

that age- and mobility-specific exercise opportunities are readily accessible. The aquatic environment provides a low-impact alternative to land-based exercise and rehabilitation. The efficacy of aquatic-based interventions has been explored in healthy 14 – 18 and clinical populations. 19 – 27

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Carlos Ayán, Paulo Carvalho, Silvia Varela and José María Cancela

-based exercise stands as an interesting option for diverse reasons. First, unlike land-based exercise programs, the aquatic medium allows for the performance of nonweight-bearing exercises; therefore, relatively intensive tasks may be carried out with a minimal risk of injury. Due to the buoyancy of water

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Brice Guignard, Annie Rouard, Didier Chollet, Marco Bonifazi, Dario Dalla Vedova, John Hart and Ludovic Seifert

Humans exhibit a large repertoire of patterns of locomotion, dependent on whether they are within a terrestrial or aquatic environment, including: walking or running, when on the ground; and at least four swimming strokes, when in water. According to an ecological dynamics approach, behavior of the

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Wim Derave and Kevin D. Tipton

Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

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Mostafa Yaghoubi, Philip W. Fink, Wyatt H. Page, Ali Heydari and Sarah P. Shultz

that reduce force and loading to the joints of children with obesity ( 38 ). To this end, aquatic exercise could be particularly effective in improving aerobic fitness and body composition in OW children without putting undue stress on the musculoskeletal system ( 32 ). Stationary exercises can be

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Helen M. Binkley and Lauren E. Rudd

physician to carefully select individualized exercise programs and to gradually increase their activity level over time as health conditions allow. These professional recommendations are very applicable to and for PM women. Aquatic exercise (AE) has become one of the popular methods for exercise and

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Iñigo Mujika, Trent Stellingwerff and Kevin Tipton

The adaptive response to training is determined by the combination of the intensity, volume, and frequency of the training. Various periodized approaches to training are used by aquatic sports athletes to achieve performance peaks. Nutritional support to optimize training adaptations should take periodization into consideration; that is, nutrition should also be periodized to optimally support training and facilitate adaptations. Moreover, other aspects of training (e.g., overload training, tapering and detraining) should be considered when making nutrition recommendations for aquatic athletes. There is evidence, albeit not in aquatic sports, that restricting carbohydrate availability may enhance some training adaptations. More research needs to be performed, particularly in aquatic sports, to determine the optimal strategy for periodizing carbohydrate intake to optimize adaptations. Protein nutrition is an important consideration for optimal training adaptations. Factors other than the total amount of daily protein intake should be considered. For instance, the type of protein, timing and pattern of protein intake and the amount of protein ingested at any one time influence the metabolic response to protein ingestion. Body mass and composition are important for aquatic sport athletes in relation to power-to-mass and for aesthetic reasons. Protein may be particularly important for athletes desiring to maintain muscle while losing body mass. Nutritional supplements, such as b-alanine and sodium bicarbonate, may have particular usefulness for aquatic athletes’ training adaptation.

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David B. Pyne, Evert A. Verhagen and Margo Mountjoy

In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.

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Stephen Langendorfer

Aquatic experiences including structured instructional programs for young children have become extremely popular over the past two decades despite opposition and controversy. Surprisingly, this popularity and controversy have not given rise to extensive or sustained research efforts by exercise scientists or aquatic professionals. Most information available for assessing risks and benefits of aquatic experiences for young children must be gleaned from ancillary sources in medical and educational literature. This paper reviews important issues and questions in the medical, developmental, and pedagogical areas of early childhood aquatics. The need for basic and applied research efforts by teams of exercise scientists from physiologic, psychologic, medical, and aquatic backgrounds is apparent.

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Phillip Conatser, Martin Block and Monica Lepore

The purpose was to examine attitudes of aquatic instructors (female, n = 59; male, n = 23) toward teaching swimming to students with mild to severe disabilities in an inclusive setting. Aquatic instructors from 28 states representing 75 cities across the U.S. participated in this study. Data were collected by mail with a modified version of Rizzo’s (1984) “Attitudes of Physical Educators Toward Teaching Handicapped Pupils” (renamed “Physical Educators’ Attitudes Toward Teaching Individuals with Disabilities - Swim”). A correlated t test showed that aquatic instructors were significantly more favorable toward teaching aquatics to students with mild disabilities than students with severe disabilities. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that conducting an inclusive aquatic program was the best predictor of favorable attitudes toward including students with mild disabilities, while having more certifications in aquatics was the best predictor of favorable attitudes toward including students with severe disabilities in regular aquatic programs.