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Return to Function Through Aquatic Therapy

Daniel Fulham O’Neill

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Aquatic Therapy

Sharon West

Column-editor : Robert D. Kersey

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Aquatic Therapy Programming

Pamela J. Redding

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The Properties of Water and Their Effect on Aquatic Therapy

Leslie Erin Korel

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Aquatic Therapy in the Treatment of Upper Extremity Injuries

Helen Binkley and Traci Schroyer

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A Comparison of 6 Weeks of Aquatic Exercise and Kinesio Taping in Patients With Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain

Yaser Alikhajeh, Elyas Barabadi, and Gholam Rasul Mohammad Rahimi

, Kavuncu V . Clinical effectiveness of aquatic exercise to treat chronic low back pain: a randomized controlled trial . Spine . 2009 ; 34 ( 14 ): 1436 – 1440 . doi:10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181a79618 19525833 10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181a79618 9. Prins J , Cutner D . Aquatic therapy in the rehabilitation of

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Effects of Water Immersion on Squat and Split Squat Kinematics in Older Adults

Anna C. Severin, Brendan J. Burkett, Mark R. McKean, Aaron N. Wiegand, and Mark G.L. Sayers

). This study showed that immersion in water gives older adults greater squat depths and encourages a squatting technique with less anterior trunk lean and more hip flexion than on land. The results from this study support the use of aquatic therapy for older adults because it provides an exercise

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Water-Based Interventions for People With Neurological Disability, Autism, and Intellectual Disability: A Scoping Review

Karlee Naumann, Jocelyn Kernot, Gaynor Parfitt, Bethany Gower, and Kade Davison

by the Australian Physiotherapy Association as therapeutic and exercise activities carried out in heated pools (Australian Physiotherapy Association website accessed May 14, 2020). Papers explored water-based programs, which identified as either hydrotherapy or aquatic therapy (i

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Landing Technique Improvements After an Aquatic-Based Neuromuscular Training Program in Physically Active Women

Samantha E. Scarneo, Hayley J. Root, Jessica C. Martinez, Craig Denegar, Douglas J. Casa, Stephanie M. Mazerolle, Catie L. Dann, Giselle A. Aerni, and Lindsay J. DiStefano


Neuromuscular training programs (NTPs) improve landing technique and decrease vertical ground-reaction forces (VGRFs), resulting in injury-risk reduction. NTPs in an aquatic environment may elicit the same improvements as land-based programs with reduced joint stress.


To examine the effects of an aquatic NTP on landing technique as measured by the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) and VGRFs, immediately and 4 mo after the intervention.

Design and Setting:

Repeated measures, pool and laboratory.


Fifteen healthy, recreationally active women (age 21 ± 2 y, mass 62.02 ± 8.18 kg, height 164.74 ± 5.97 cm) who demonstrated poor landing technique (LESS-Real Time > 4).


All participants completed an aquatic NTP 3 times/wk for 6 wk.

Main Outcome Measures:

Participants’ landing technique was evaluated using a jump-landing task immediately before (PRE), immediately after (POST), and 4 mo after (RET) the intervention period. A single rater, blinded to time point, graded all videos using the LESS, which is a valid and reliable movement-screening tool. Peak VGRFs were measured during the stance phase of the jump-landing test. Repeated-measure analyses of variance with planned comparisons were performed to explore differences between time points.


LESS scores were lower at POST (4.46 ± 1.69 errors) and at RET (4.2 ± 1.72 errors) than at PRE (6.30 ± 1.78 errors) (P < .01). No significant differences were observed between POST and RET (P > .05). Participants also landed with significantly lower peak VGRFs (P < .01) from PRE (2.69 ± .72 N) to POST (2.23 ± .66 N).


The findings introduce evidence that an aquatic NTP improves landing technique and suggest that improvements are retained over time. These results show promise of using an aquatic NTP when there is a desire to reduce joint loading, such as early stages of rehabilitation, to improve biomechanics and reduce injury risk.

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Lower-Limb Muscle Activity During Aquatic Treadmill Running in Individuals With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Billy Chun-Lung So, Man-Ying Kwok, Yin-Leuk Chan, Hing-Fung Kevin Lam, Hei-Tung Hilda Chang, Tsz-Kit Chan, Chi-Yin Ken Leung, and Hon-Ting Tse

control in ACL-R individuals. In the last decade, more studies have investigated the use of aquatic therapy in rehabilitation. General benefits of aquatic exercise include reduced pain and edema and promoted blood circulation due to the properties of hydrostatic pressure and thermodynamics of water. 8