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Ronald J. Maughan, Phillip Watson, Philip A.A. Cordery, Neil P. Walsh, Samuel J. Oliver, Alberto Dolci, Nidia Rodriguez-Sanchez, and Stuart D.R. Galloway

,000–3,000 g ). Serum was dispensed and stored at 4 °C for measurement of osmolality by freezing-point depression and sodium by flame photometry (Bangor). A further serum aliquot was stored at −80 °C for measurements of aldosterone and arginine vasopressin concentrations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

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Martin D. Hoffman and Thomas M. Myers

Symptomatic exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is known to be a potential complication from overhydration during exercise, but there remains a general belief that sodium supplementation will prevent EAH. We present a case in which a runner with a prior history of EAH consulted a sports nutritionist who advised him to consume considerable supplemental sodium, which did not prevent him from developing symptomatic EAH during a subsequent long run. Emergency medical services were requested for this runner shortly after he finished a 17-hr, 72-km run and hike in Grand Canyon National Park during which he reported having consumed 9.2–10.6 L of water and >6,500 mg of sodium. First responders determined his serum sodium concentration with point-of-care testing was 122 mEq/L. His hyponatremia was documented to have improved from field treatment with an oral hypertonic solution of 800 mg of sodium in 200 ml of water, and it improved further after significant aquaresis despite in-hospital treatment with isotonic fluids (lactated Ringer’s). He was discharged about 5 hr after admission in good condition. This case demonstrates that while oral sodium supplementation does not necessarily prevent symptomatic EAH associated with overhydration, early recognition and field management with oral hypertonic saline in combination with fluid restriction can be effective treatment for mild EAH. There continues to be a lack of universal understanding of the underlying pathophysiology and appropriate hospital management of EAH.

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Yasuki Sekiguchi, Courteney L. Benjamin, Samantha O. Dion, Ciara N. Manning, Jeb F. Struder, Erin E. Dierickx, Margaret C. Morrissey, Erica M. Filep, and Douglas J. Casa

acclimatization induces increased arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion, an antidiuretic hormone, which results in increased water absorption and total body water ( Mudambo et al., 1997 ). There is limited research examining the adaptation of thirst following HA while limited data suggested HA decreases thirst

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Reid Reale, Gary Slater, Gregory R. Cox, Ian C. Dunican, and Louise M. Burke

basic trainee . Military Medicine, 164 ( 3 ), 234 . PubMed Glick , S. , & Kagan , A. ( 1979 ). Radioimmunoassay of arginine vasopressin . In B.M. Jaffe & H.R. Behrmann (Eds.), Methods of hormone radioimmunoassay (pp.  341 – 351 ). New York, NY : Academic Press . Halperin , I

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Travis Anderson, Amy R. Lane, and Anthony C. Hackney

corticotropin-releasing hormone and arginine vasopressin pulsatility that results in increased adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) secretion and thus increased cortisol concentrations upon waking is modulated through many feedback and feedforward mechanisms, including the optic nerve that acts to integrate

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Paola Rodriguez-Giustiniani and Stuart D.R. Galloway

). Variation in osmoregulation of arginine vasopressin during the human menstrual cycle . Clinical Endocrinology, 22 ( 1 ), 37 – 42 . PubMed ID: 3978827 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2265.1985.tb01062.x 10.1111/j.1365-2265.1985.tb01062.x Stachenfeld , N.S. ( 2008 ). Sex hormone effects on body fluid regulation

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Beatriz Rael, Nuria Romero-Parra, Víctor M. Alfaro-Magallanes, Laura Barba-Moreno, Rocío Cupeiro, Xanne Janse de Jonge, Ana B. Peinado, and on Behalf of the IronFEMME Study Group

have shown a slight increase of water retention with high estradiol concentrations 8 , 27 because of the presence of estradiol receptors in the hypothalamus nuclei, where arginine vasopressin is produced. High levels of progesterone also promote water retention, as this sex hormone increases

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Matteo Bonato, Antonio La Torre, Marina Saresella, Ivana Marventano, Giampiero Merati, Giuseppe Banfi, and Jacopo A. Vitale

-releasing hormone and arginine vasopressin pulsatility dramatically increase, raising the level of circulating cortisol. The primary function of cortisol secretion in response to exercise is to increase the availability of substrates for metabolism during both activity 14 and recovery. 15 Although cortisol levels

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Eric Kyle O’Neal, Samantha Louise Johnson, Brett Alan Davis, Veronika Pribyslavska, and Mary Caitlin Stevenson-Wilcoxson

large shifts in fluids are not incurred, and hormonal regulation of fluid retention responses by arginine vasopressin are more uniformly produced when considerable fluid deficit is experienced ( Cheuvront & Kenefick, 2014 ; Cheuvront et al., 2013 ). It is plausible that the physiological and hormonal

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Jaison L. Wynne and Patrick B. Wilson

, net fluid balance, plasma aldosterone and arginine vasopressin, gut perceptions, and drink palatability ▪ Urine volume was lower with 2.3% + 50 mmol/L Na + than the other three beverages over the entire 5-hr observation period ▪ Net fluid balance was better with 2.3% beer + 50 mmol/L Na + than 3