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Robin S. Vealey, Robin Cooley, Emma Nilsson, Carly Block and Nick Galli

announcing this historical event speaks volumes about how psychological inventories were and continue to be viewed by people— New Discovery of a Solid Science, Most Necessary for the Community, for Discerning the Secrets of the Heart of Other Men from Daily Conversation, Even Against Their Will . Assessment

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Grace Goc Karp and Marianne L. Woods

Examining how preservice teachers (PTs) perceive and implement assessment may provide clues as to how we can refocus the way future teachers use assessment. A conceptual framework addressing PT beliefs and how they change was applied in this study to examine PTs’ (N = 17) beliefs and understanding of the role of assessment and evaluation on student learning and instruction while implementing a high school physical education program. PTs experienced and discussed the role of needs assessment, assessment-focused instruction, and authentic and alternative assessments in relation to student learning and instruction using a teaching for understanding framework (Wiggins, 1998). Data gathered included surveys and interviews documenting PTs’ previously held beliefs and conceptions; current perceptions of the assessment concepts used during the course and in their units; analysis of assessments used in unit plans; and PTs’ perceptions of assessment and student learning during and after the unit taught. PTs planned and implemented alternative/authentic as well as traditional assessments in three out of four units. PTs’ beliefs about student learning and assessment were varied. Despite ultimate lack of teacher authority, PTs felt that doing these assessments affected their beliefs about assessment. Some PTs accommodated new information about authentic assessment and expanded their understanding, whereas other PTs either resisted or assimilated this new knowledge into existing belief structures. The results indicate that shaping critical and authentic assessment experiences in teacher preparation deserves increased attention and deliberate planning throughout PETE programs if shifts in beliefs are to be made.

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Michelle L. Bartlett, Mitch Abrams, Megan Byrd, Arial S. Treankler and Richard Houston-Norton

specifically in a college athlete population and anger identification assessment and protocols for this population have been scarce at best. Anger and Performance in Athletics Most attempts to address anger in athletics have been to try to reduce it ( Abrams, 2010 ). Careful consideration must be taken here as

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John L. Woodard and Annalise A.M. Rahman

Recent progress in technology has allowed for the development and validation of computer-based adaptations of existing pencil-and-paper neuropsychological measures and comprehensive cognitive test batteries. These computer-based assessments are frequently implemented in the field of clinical sports psychology to evaluate athletes’ functioning postconcussion. These tests provide practical and psychometric advantages over their pencil-and-paper counterparts in this setting; however, these tests also provide clinicians with unique challenges absent in paper-and-pencil testing. The purpose of this article is to present advantages and disadvantages of computer-based testing, generally, as well as considerations for the use of computer-based assessments for the evaluation of concussion among athletes. Furthermore, the paper provides suggestions for further development of computerized assessment of sports concussion given the limitations of the current technology.

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Nadia C. Valentini, Nancy Getchell, Samuel W. Logan, Ling-Yin Liang, Daphne Golden, Mary E. Rudisill and Leah E. Robinson

Background:

We compared children with, at-risk for, or without developmental coordination disorder (DCD) on the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) through (a) correlations, (b) gender and age comparisons, (c) cross tab analyses, and (d) factor analyses.

Method:

Children (N = 424; age range: 4–10 years) from southern Brazil completed the TGMD-2 and MABC and placed into groups (DCD: ≤ 5th%, n = 58; at-risk: > 5th to ≤ 15th%, n = 133; typically developing (TD) >16th%, n = 233).

Results:

The strongest correlation was between total performance on the TGMD-2 and MABC (r = .37). No gender differences were found for performance on the MABC while boys performed better than girls on the TGMD-2. Cross tab analyses indicated a high level of agreement for children who performed in the lowest percentiles on each assessment. Factor analyses suggested that, for both the TD and at-risk groups, three factors loaded on the motor assessments. In contrast, the DCD group loaded on a sport skill, general skill, and a manipulative skill factor, accounting for 42.3% of the variance.

Conclusions::

Evidence suggests that children who perform very poorly on one assessment are likely to perform poorly on the other. Children with DCD may have sports-related skill deficiencies.

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Simon J. Roberts and Stuart J. Fairclough

The common practice of annually age grouping children in education, likely done under the assumption of similarly aged children sharing similar abilities and learner characteristics, may actually undermine equity and fairness in student assessments. This strategy has received criticism for (dis) advantaging those older children born closer to the “cut off” date for entry into an academic year and for promoting the existence of relative age effects (RAEs). This paper explores the possibility that RAEs may be prevalent in the end-of-year attainment levels of junior high school physical education (PE) students. The PE end-of-year attainment scores were collected from 582 students in grades 7, 8 and 9 (aged 11–14 years) in the United Kingdom (UK). The results from a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated a significant main effect for month of birth (p = .001) and gender (p = .001). Follow up interviews with heads of PE (HoPE) revealed a lack of awareness of RAEs and inconsiderate assessment strategies, which deviated from the requirements of the formal curriculum. The implications of RAEs in school PE assessment and possible recommendations are discussed.

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Tina J. Hall, Lori K. Hicklin and Karen E. French

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher compliance with state mandated assessment protocols and teacher accuracy in assessing student motor skill performance.

Method:

Middle school teachers (N = 116) submitted eighth grade student motor skill performance data from 318 physical education classes to a trained monitoring committee to evaluate compliance and data accuracy.

Results:

Eighty-four percent of the data sets met the requirements for acceptance and compliance by the monitoring committee. Accurate assessment of students proved more difficult for teachers when discriminating four performance levels within a rubric (M = 67.17%, SD = 19.79) than simply discerning between competent and incompetent motor skill performance (M = 93.92%, SD = 7.42). Teachers who attended data collection training sessions and curriculum inservice training submitted more compliant and accurate student performance data.

Discussion:

Teacher training is instrumental in the successful use of testing protocols and for discriminating levels within student skill competency. Training should be a part of any district or state mandated assessment program.

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Erwin Huiszoon, Paul L. de Vreede, Inge Bramsen, Chris H.Z. Kuiper and Harald S. Miedema

The Assessment of Daily Activity Performance (ADAP) test has been developed to measure the physical capacity of older adults to carry out instrumental activities of daily living (ADL). The present study explores the option to create a less time-consuming short version of the ADAP that can be completed in the individual’s home environment and that imposes less of a physical burden. Data from 141 independently living women aged 70 and older were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA). PCA identified two factors, on which 10 of the original 21 items had loaded sufficiently to be eligible for inclusion in a short version. The ADAP short version is considerably shorter than the original test and provides a good representation of the constructs being measured. More research is necessary to develop a short version of the ADAP that is easily applicable in the home environment of older adults.

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Natalie Jayne Lander, Lisa Michele Barnett, Helen Brown and Amanda Telford

The purpose of this study was to investigate instruction and assessment of fundamental movement skills (FMSs) by Physical Education (PE) teachers of Year 7 girls. Of 168 secondary school PE teachers, many had received little FMSs professional development, and although most assessed student FMSs proficiency, the quality of assessment was variable. Neither years of experience nor confidence influenced the quality of assessment tools used; however, greater FMSs training improved assessment practice regularity. Teachers more recently out of preservice were more confident in demonstrating FMSs. The results suggest that FMSs education for teachers should be a priority inclusion in both the training of preservice teachers and the ongoing professional development of in-service teachers.

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Robert E. Norris and Jeffery R. Kovan