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Cheng-Hsiu Lai, Yin-Lan Tsai, Shih-Wei Chou, Fon-Chin Lin, Chung-Yu Chen, Shu-Man Chen, Wen-Chih Lee, Yi-Hung Liao and Chia-Hua Kuo

The majority of schoolchildren with asthma do not participate in regular physical activity due to a risk of exercise-induced asthma. The aim of the study was to determine the glycemic characteristic of Taiwanese children with persistent asthma. The current study found that children with asthma (age 10.4 ± 0.4 years) exhibited lower whole-body insulin sensitivity and poorer physical fitness compared to children without asthma (age 10.9 ± 0.6 years). Postprandial glucose and insulin, BMI, and waist circumference of the children with asthma were greater than those of the healthy children. Four patients with asthma regularly participating in a permissible amount of physical activity exhibited lower postprandial glucose and insulin levels compared to those of the rest of the children with asthma who were totally lacking physical activity. A permissible amount of physical activity appears to be beneficial for children with asthma in the prevention of the early onset of insulin resistance.

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Kim D. Lu, Krikor Manoukian, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Dan M. Cooper and Stanley P. Galant

Obesity increases the risk of asthma throughout life but the underlying mechanisms linking these all too common threats to child health are poorly understood. Acute bouts of exercise, aerobic fitness, and levels of physical activity clearly play a role in the pathogenesis and/or management of both childhood obesity and asthma. Moreover, both obesity and physical inactivity are associated with asthma symptoms and response to therapy (a particularly challenging feature of obesity-related asthma). In this article, we review current understandings of the link between physical activity, aerobic fitness and the asthma-obesity link in children and adolescents (e.g., the impact of chronic low-grade inflammation, lung mechanics, and direct effects of metabolic health on the lung). Gaps in our knowledge regarding the physiological mechanisms linking asthma, obesity and exercise are often compounded by imprecise estimations of adiposity and challenges of assessing aerobic fitness in children. Addressing these gaps could lead to practical interventions and clinical approaches that could mitigate the profound health care crisis of the increasing comorbidity of asthma, physical inactivity, and obesity in children.

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Carley O’Neill and Shilpa Dogra

Background:

Exercise triggers asthma symptoms among adults with exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIBC). This may lead to lower physical activity levels among this population. The purpose of this study was to assess perceived exertion (RPE), perceived breathlessness (RPD), affect (FS), and physical activity enjoyment during and following an acute bout of high intensity interval exercise (HIIE), moderate intensity interval (MIIE) and moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICE) in adults with EIBC.

Methods:

RPD, RPE, and FS were assessed each minute during the sessions and enjoyment was assessed following each session (n = 11).

Results:

RPE was lower during MIIE compared with MICE (P = .006). RPD was lowest during MIIE but was not different between HIIE and MICE. Affect was lower in MICE than HIIE in the last minute of exercise (P = .003) and overall was greatest during the MIIE (P = .022; P = .018). Enjoyment scores were similar between protocols.

Conclusions:

Interval exercise is associated with lower ratings of perceived exertion and dyspnea, an increase in in-task affect, and similar physical activity enjoyment when compared with continuous exercise.

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Michele Merlini, Greg Whyte, Sam Marcora, Mike Loosemore, Neil Chester and John Dickinson

allow unscrupulous athletes, with and without asthma-related conditions, to use inhaled β 2 -agonists for the purpose of benefiting from a potential ergogenic action. Previous research investigating the acute and short-term use (eg, 2 wk) of inhaled β 2 -agonists suggests that they do not have an

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Thomas W. Pelham, Laurence E. Holt and Michael A. Moss

The objective of this study was to examine pre- and postexercise pulmonary function of males (13 children with asthma, 8 children without asthma) performing controlled exercise in 3 indoor sport environments: ice rink, gymnasium, and swimming pool. A positive test was defined as a 20% decrease in any of the forced expiratory values. Three children with asthma and 2 children without asthma had a greater than 20% decrease in FEV1 and FHVT following activity in the rink. One child with asthma had a greater than a 20% decrease in FEV1 following pool activity. In general, results showed children with asthma had a significant (p < .05) decrease in both FEV1 and FEVT% 5 min following exercise in the ice rink. No similar decrease was found 5 min following gymnasium and pool activity of the same intensity. In general, children without asthma maintained normal pulmonary function in all 3 environments. Evidence from this study would seem to suggest that the environmental conditions of the indoor ice rink may potentiate bronchospasm in some children with asthma.

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Nicolette H.M.J. van Veldhoven, Lex Wijnroks, Jan M. Bogaard and Adri Vermeer

To establish the feasibility of a comprehensive exercise program (PEP) a pilot study was conducted on 7 children with asthma (8 to 13 years). The program was comprised of regular group exercises and home exercises for a period of 3 months. It was based on a theoretical model describing the relationships between physical competence, perceived physical competence, self-esteem, and coping behavior. The results showed that after the program, the children’s heart rate response had improved significantly at a workload of 60 W. Although exercise indices, such as endurance time at treadmill running and maximum workload on a cycle ergometer, had improved too, they were not significant. Further, the training had a positive and significant effect on the children’s expectations of physical competence in sports and on coping with asthma. As expected, no significant changes of lung function indices were found. In conclusion, our approach seemed to be feasible, especially for coping and perceived competence in children with asthma.

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M. Jonathan King, Timothy David Noakes and Eugene Godfrey Weinberg

Twelve boys with atopic asthma, ages 9-14 years, were divided equally into exercise and control groups. Identical measurements were made before and after a 3-month trial period during which the exercise group was trained. The trained group, but not the control group, showed significant improvements in parameters of physical fitness including maximum oxygen consumption (V̇O2max) and peak running velocity during the maximal treadmill test (p<0.05). Treadmill velocity at the lactate tumpoint was greater and heart rate during submaximal exercise was lower in the trained subjects after the trial period. Subjective and objective findings (less use of medication, fewer asthmatic attacks, increased physical activity) suggested that clinical asthma improved with training. However exercise-induced asthma (EIA), measured by the airway’s response to a standardized treadmill run, did not alter with training.

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Joshua G. Hackel

Column-editor : Tracy Ray

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Jennifer Weaver, Craig R. Denegar and Jay Hertel

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Jeffrey R. Kovan and Thomas J. Mackowiak