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Hitoshi Koda, Yoshihiro Kai, Shin Murata, Hironori Osugi, Kunihiko Anami, Takahiko Fukumoto and Hidetaka Imagita

Although the human body looks symmetric at first glance, the limbs have functional asymmetry, such as a dominant hand or leg ( Coren, Porac, & Duncan, 1979 ; Incel, Ceceli, Durukan, Erdem, & Yorgancioglu, 2002 ). Previous literature has defined laterality as “a side of the body being

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Victor Spiandor Beretta, Fabio Augusto Barbieri, Diego Orcioli-Silva, Paulo Cezar Rocha dos Santos, Lucas Simieli, Rodrigo Vitório and Lilian Teresa Bucken Gobbi

theoretical possibility is that, for some reason, one substantia nigra is more vulnerable than the other, and once the degenerative process starts, accelerated cell death occurs first on that side (see Djaldetti et al., 2006 for more details). The unilateral signs/symptoms of disease cause asymmetry in the

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Janina M. Prado-Rico and Marcos Duarte

the asymmetry of upright standing. For Borelli ( 1989 ), “standing alternately on one foot with the other loaded vertically is less fatiguing than standing on both feet simultaneously.” For Vierordt ( 1864 ), “body fluctuations are much lower when asymmetrically standing.” Hellebrandt ( Hellebrandt

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Paul J. Read, Jon L. Oliver, Gregory D. Myer, Mark B.A. De Ste Croix and Rhodri S. Lloyd

disruptions in motor control strategies underlie these periods of increased injury risk ( 2 , 30 , 38 ). Between-limb asymmetry in functional performance is a potential risk factor for male youth soccer players where preferred lower limb dominance is evident ( 11 ). This may be further confounded by

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Silvia Cabral, Renan A. Resende, Adam C. Clansey, Kevin J. Deluzio, W. Scott Selbie and António P. Veloso

High levels of gait asymmetry are associated with many pathologies. Our long-term goal is to improve gait symmetry through real-time biofeedback of a symmetry index. Symmetry is often reported as a single metric or a collective signature of multiple discrete measures. While this is useful for assessment, incorporating multiple feedback metrics presents too much information for most subjects to use as visual feedback for gait retraining. The aim of this article was to develop a global gait asymmetry (GGA) score that could be used as a biofeedback metric for gait retraining and to test the effectiveness of the GGA for classifying artificially-induced asymmetry. Eighteen participants (11 males; age 26.9 y [SD = 7.7]; height 1.8 m [SD = 0.1]; body mass 72.7 kg [SD = 8.9]) walked on a treadmill in 3 symmetry conditions, induced by wearing custom-made sandals: a symmetric condition (identical sandals) and 2 asymmetric conditions (different sandals). The GGA score was calculated, based on several joint angles, and compared between conditions. Significant differences were found among all conditions (P < .001), meaning that the GGA score is sensitive to different levels of asymmetry, and may be useful for rehabilitation and assessment.

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Harsh H. Buddhadev, Daniel L. Crisafulli, David N. Suprak and Jun G. San Juan

asymmetry in power output has been observed in individuals with unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency during cycling. When pedaling at a fixed intensity, the normal ACL-intact limb increased its output by 44% to 50% to compensate for the reduced effort by the ACL-deficient leg. 11 Similar

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Oliver Gonzalo-Skok, Alejandro Moreno-Azze, José Luis Arjol-Serrano, Julio Tous-Fajardo and Chris Bishop

Interest in between-limbs asymmetry has substantially increased during recent years in the context of sport performance. Such interest appears to stem from the literature reporting the prevalence of asymmetry across a range of sports such as basketball, 1 soccer, 2 and rugby. 3 Furthermore

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Francesco Campa, Federico Spiga and Stefania Toselli

muscle strength, stability, flexibility, and motor control is crucial to achieve and to maintain optimal sport performance. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a useful screening tool to evaluate asymmetries, dysfunctions, and painful movement in athletes. The FMS consists of a battery of 7

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Scott R. Brown, Erin R. Feldman, Matt R. Cross, Eric R. Helms, Bruno Marrier, Pierre Samozino and Jean-Benoît Morin

highest level. Thus, in some cases injury prevention and performance enhancement are pragmatically one in the same. Interlimb differences, or asymmetry, are prevalent in an array of important metrics, for example horizontal force ( F H ), and can negatively affect global performance via a lower

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Courtney L. Pollock, Michael A. Hunt, Taian M. Vieira, Alessio Gallina, Tanya D. Ivanova and S. Jayne Garland

about the ankle poststroke requires the investigation of the role of each plantarflexor muscle in the control of postural sway. Interestingly, despite the asymmetry of postural control following stroke, during maintenance of standing balance under external loading, a moderate level of common drive to