States Tennis Association) have commissioned funded research to better understand the contributing factors to athlete ill-being (e.g., athlete burnout). Athlete Burnout The intense training regimen that is common place in competition sport resulting in athlete burnout has received increasing practical
Sofie Kent, Kieran Kingston and Kyle F. Paradis
Emily Kroshus and J.D. DeFreese
Athlete burnout is an important psychological health concern that may be influenced by coach behaviors. Participants were 933 collegiate soccer coaches who described their utilization of burnout prevention strategies. Deductive content analysis was used to categorize and interpret responses. The most frequently endorsed prevention strategies involved managing/limiting physical stressors. Reducing nonsport stressors and promoting autonomy and relatedness were also endorsed. Motivational climate changes and secondary prevention strategies were infrequently reported. These findings can help inform the design of educational programming to ensure that all coaches are aware of the range of ways in which they can help prevent athlete burnout.
Thomas D. Raedeke
This study examined athlete burnout from a commitment perspective, which suggests that athletes can be involved in sport for a combination of reasons related to sport attraction (want to be involved) and sport entrapment (have to be involved). According to this framework, athletes are likely to experience burnout if they are involved in sport primarily for entrapment-related reasons. Female and male age-group swimmers (N = 236) completed a questionnaire that assessed theoretical determinants of commitment and burnout (emotional/ physical exhaustion, swim devaluation, and reduced swim accomplishment). Cluster analysis was used to partition swimmers into profiles based on the theoretical determinants of commitment. Subsequent analyses of variance compared emergent cluster groups on burnout. Results revealed that athletes who exhibited characteristics reflecting sport entrapment generally demonstrated higher burnout scores than athletes who were primarily involved in sport for attraction-related reasons. These results provided support for a commitment perspective as a viable framework for understanding athlete burnout.
Paul R. Appleton and Andrew P. Hill
This study investigated whether motivation regulations mediate the relationship between socially prescribed and self-oriented dimensions of perfectionism and athlete burnout. Two-hundred and thirty-one (N = 231) elite junior athletes completed the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (Flett, Hewitt, Boucher, Davidson, & Munro, 2000), the Sport Motivation Scale (Pelletier, Fortier, Valle-rand, Tuson, & Blais, 1995), and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (Raedeke & Smith, 2009). Multiple mediator regression analyses revealed that amotivation mediated the relationship between socially prescribed perfectionism and burnout symptoms. Amotivation and intrinsic motivation emerged as significant mediators of the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and burnout symptoms. The findings suggest that patterns of motivation regulations are important factors in the perfectionism-athlete burnout relationship.
Ralph Appleby, Paul Davis, Louise Davis and Henrik Gustafsson
( Gould, Tuffey, Udry, & Loehr, 1997 ; Gustafsson, De Freese, & Madigan, 2017 ). Athlete burnout is a psychological syndrome that is characterized by symptoms of emotional and physical exhaustion, reduced sporting accomplishment, and the devaluation of sports participation ( Raedeke, 1997 ; Raedeke
Scott L. Cresswell and Robert C. Eklund
Athlete burnout has been a concern to sport organizations, the media, and researchers because of its association with negative welfare and performance outcomes (Gould, Udry, Tuffey, & Loehr, 1996; Smith, 1986). Conclusions drawn in existing cross-sectional studies (e.g., Cresswell & Eklund, 2006c; Gould, Tuffey, Udry, & Loehr, 1996) are limited because they are not based on data sensitive to the dynamic nature of athlete burnout. In the current study, professional New Zealand rugby players (n = 9) and members of team management (n = 3) were interviewed multiple times over a 12-month period in an effort to capture accounts reflecting the dynamic nature of their experiences. In these interviews, some players reported experiences consistent with multidimensional descriptions of burnout in the extant literature. During the course of the interviews players reported positive and negative changes within their experiences. Players’ experiences and adaptations were interpreted using existing theoretical explanations.
Lisa K. Fender
Burnout research has predominately focused on individuals within the helping professions, such as teachers and social workers. Only recently have studies been conducted to include the sports world. However, these studies focus only upon coaches (Capel, Sisley, & Desertrain, 1987) and athletic trainers (Capel, 1986), not on athletes. This review examines the literature on burnout and specifically relates it to athletes. Major findings from the literature are identified. In addition, future directions in athlete burnout research are recognized, and possible variables contributing to athlete burnout are examined.
Thomas D. Raedeke and Alan L. Smith
The purpose of this research was to develop a psychometrically sound measure of athlete burnout. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis revealed burn-out dimensions reflective of emotional/physical exhaustion, reduced sense of swimming accomplishment, and swimming devaluation. In two subsequent studies, the psychometric properties of a refined version of this measure were examined. Independent samples of senior age-group swimmers and college athletes from a variety of sports completed a questionnaire that tapped the three burnout dimensions as well as stress- and motivation-related variables. Confirmatory factor analysis and alternative model testing supported the specified three-factor burnout model. In support of construct validity, the burnout subscales correlated positively with stress, trait anxiety, and amotivation, and correlated negatively with coping, social support, enjoyment, commitment, and intrinsic motivation indices across the two studies.
Yusuke Tabei, David Fletcher and Kate Goodger
This study investigated the relationship between organizational stressors in sport and athlete burnout and involved a cross-cultural comparison of English and Japanese soccer players. Ninety-eight male players completed the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (Raedeke & Smith, 2001) to determine levels of perceived burnout. Based on data reported in previous research, and the thresholds developed by Hodge, Lonsdale, and Ng (2008), 22 of the players were identified as exhibiting higher levels of perceived burnout. Nine members of this subsample (4 English and 5 Japanese players) were subsequently interviewed to explore the relationship between their experiences of burnout and the organizational stressors they encountered. Results revealed multiple demands linked to the dimensions of athlete burnout and identified specific organizational-related issues that players associated with the incidence of burnout. Cultural differences between English and Japanese players in terms of the prevalence and organizational stressors associated with burnout were also identified, with the main differences being the relationship with senior teammates and the coaching style.
Kelly Barcza-Renner, Robert C. Eklund, Alexandre J.S. Morin and Christine M. Habeeb
This investigation sought to replicate and extend earlier studies of athlete burnout by examining athlete-perceived controlling coaching behaviors and athlete perfectionism variables as, respectively, environmental and dispositional antecedents of athlete motivation and burnout. Data obtained from NCAA Division I swimmers (n = 487) within 3 weeks of conference championship meets were analyzed for this report. Significant indirect effects were observed between controlling coaching behaviors and burnout through athlete perfectionism (i.e., socially prescribed, self-oriented) and motivation (i.e., autonomous, amotivation). Controlling coaching behaviors predicted athlete perfectionism. In turn, self-oriented perfectionism was positively associated with autonomous motivation and negatively associated with amotivation, while socially prescribed perfectionism was negatively associated with autonomous motivation and positively associated with controlled motivation and amotivation. Autonomous motivation and amotivation, in turn, predicted athlete burnout in expected directions. These findings implicate controlling coaching behaviors as potentially contributing to athlete perfectionism, shaping athlete motivational regulations, and possibly increasing athlete burnout.