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Adam J. Nichol, Edward T. Hall, Will Vickery and Philip R. Hayes

Sports participation is associated with an extensive range of positive athlete outcomes ( Holt & Neely, 2011 ). These include sport-specific skill proficiency and knowledge ( Hastie, Calderón, Rolim, & Guarino, 2013 ), life skills and motivation ( Gould & Carson, 2008 ), health and well-being, self

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Zenzi Huysmans, Damien Clement, Robert Hilliard and Adam Hansell

University, 2013 ). In South Africa, effective youth coaches are characterized by their ability to facilitate athlete outcomes within the domains of sport competence, personal competence, and life course competence. Sport competence refers to the traditional athlete outcomes centred on physical and sport

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Sarah Lawrason, Jennifer Turnnidge, Luc J. Martin and Jean Côté

autonomy-supportive behaviors; Deci & Ryan, 1985 ; Mageau & Vallerand, 2003 ), transformational leadership (TFL; Bass, 1998 ) is valuable for examining how leaders, such as coaches, can effectively use interpersonal skills to influence followers’ (i.e., athletes’) outcomes and has been widely studied

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Stewart A. Vella and Dana J. Perlman

The purpose of this paper is to provide a concise resource for coaches, coach educators, and coaching scientists by reviewing three common approaches to coaching: the mastery approach to coaching; autonomy-supportive coaching; and the transformational leadership approach to coaching. The theoretical foundations, purpose, evidence base, specifed behaviours, and translation into coaching and coach education of each approach are reviewed. Despite diverse theoretical foundations and variations in purpose, there is some overlap in the coaching behaviours prescribed by each approach. However, there is limited empirical evidence to support the use of the three approaches in coach education and this is detrimental to effective and evidence-based coach education. Efforts to integrate theoretical foundations are promising, and a comprehensive prescription of coaching behaviours based on an integration of the three approaches is possible. This approach can potentially lead to cumulative effects on positive athlete outcomes. Future research should elucidate the common and unique contributions of these approaches to athletes’ outcomes, and whether they differ by age, sex, type of sport, or competition level.

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Brian A. Friscia, Robert R. Hammill, Brian A. McGuire, Jay N. Hertel and Christopher D. Ingersoll

Context:

Uninjured baseball players have been shown to have increased anterior glenohumeral joint laxity, which may result in adaptive changes at the medial elbow.

Objective:

To determine the relationship between anterior shoulder laxity and medial elbow laxity in both arms of baseball and nonbaseball high school athletes and compare the laxity of dominant and nondominant shoulders and elbows of high school baseball and nonbaseball players.

Design:

Cohort design.

Setting:

Local high schools.

Participants:

Thirty healthy high school male athletes.

Outcome Measures:

Anterior shoulder and medial elbow laxity measurements were taken bilaterally with the Ligmaster™.

Results:

Dominant and nondominant shoulder laxity was significantly greater in the nonbaseball players than the baseball players. No other significant relationships existed.

Conclusions:

High school baseball players exhibit less anterior shoulder laxity than do nonbaseball players. No relationship exists between anterior shoulder and medial elbow laxity in high school baseball players.

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Jennifer Turnnidge and Jean Côté

It is well established that coach learning and athlete outcomes can be enhanced through participation in Coach Development Programs (CDPs). Researchers advocate that the quality of CDPs can be improved by: (a) placing a greater emphasis on facilitating coaches’ interpersonal behaviours (Lefebvre, Evans, et al., 2016), (b) using appropriate and systematic evaluation frameworks to guide the evaluation of interpersonally-focused CDPs (Evans et al., 2015), and (c) incorporating behaviour change theories into the design and implementation of these CDPs (Allan et al., 2017). In doing so, the relevance of CDP content and the uptake of this content among coaching practitioners may be enhanced. Transformational leadership theory provides a valuable guiding framework for designing CDPs that aim to promote positive development in youth sport. Thus, the goal of the present paper is to outline the development of a novel, evidence-informed CDP: The Transformational Coaching Workshop and to provide practical strategies for the implementation of this workshop.

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Michelle McCalpin, Blair Evans and Jean Côté

Competitive engineering is a process whereby sport organizations modify the rules, facilities, and equipment involved in sport to facilitate desirable athlete outcomes and experiences. Competitive engineering is being increasingly adopted by youth sport organizations with empirical evidence positively supporting its influence on skill development and performance. The purpose of this study was to explore young female athletes’ experiences in their modified soccer environment. Seventeen recreational and competitive soccer players, aged 8–11, participated in semistructured photo elicitation interviews that featured several visual qualitative methods (i.e., athlete-directed photography, drawing exercises, and pile-sorting) to facilitate insight on their sport environments. Results revealed that the athletes’ competitively engineered soccer experience was perceived as being a distinct environment that emphasized personal development, positive relationships, and the underlying enjoyment of sport. These findings shed light of how youth sport structure modifications influence the athletes’ experiences, providing practical implications to further promote positive youth sport experiences.

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Kyle J. Paquette and Philip Sullivan

Multiple conceptual frameworks support the link between coaches’ attitudes and behaviors, and their effect on a variety of athlete outcomes, such as performance, motivation, and athlete self-perceptions. The present study explored the relationships among coaches’ attitudes and behaviors, with respect to psychological skills training (PST), and the beliefs of their athletes. One hundred and fifteen coaches completed PST attitude (SPA-RC-revised) and behavior measures, while 403 athletes completed two perception measures (CCS and SCI). Structural Equation Modeling showed that the proposed relationships were statistically significant, except for the pathway between coaches’ attitudes and their behaviors. Results support the disconnect between coaches’ attitudes and behaviors previously established in PST research, as well as the theoretical links between coaches’ behaviors and athletes’ perceptions (i.e., evaluation of their coach and self-confidence).

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Juliette Stebbings, Ian M. Taylor and Christopher M. Spray

Within the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) framework, research has considered the consequences of coaches’ autonomy supportive and controlling behaviors on various athlete outcomes (e.g., motivation and performance). The antecedents of such behaviors, however, have received little attention. Coaches (N = 443) from a variety of sports and competitive levels completed a self-report questionnaire to assess their psychological need satisfaction, well-being and perceived interpersonal behaviors toward their athletes. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that coaches’ competence and autonomy need satisfaction positively predicted their levels of psychological well-being, as indexed by positive affect and subjective vitality. In turn, coaches’ psychological well-being positively predicted their perceived autonomy support toward their athletes, and negatively predicted their perceived controlling behaviors. Overall, the results highlight the importance of coaching contexts that facilitate coaches’ psychological need satisfaction and well-being, thereby increasing the likelihood of adaptive coach interpersonal behavior toward athletes.

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William P. Ebben

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in hamstring activation during lower body resistance training exercises. This study also sought to assess differences in hamstring-to-quadriceps muscle activation ratios and gender differences therein.

Methods:

A randomized repeated measures design was used to compare six resistance training exercises that are commonly believed to train the hamstrings, including the squat, seated leg curl, stiff leg dead lift, single leg stiff leg dead lift, good morning, and Russian curl. Subjects included 34 college athletes. Outcome measures included the biceps femoris (H) and rectus femoris (Q) electromyography (EMG) and the H-to-Q EMG ratio, for each exercise.

Results:

Main effects were found for the H (P < 0.001) and Q (P < 0.001). Post hoc analysis identified the specific differences between exercises. In addition, main effects were found for the H-to-Q ratio when analyzed for all subjects (P < 0.001). Further analysis revealed that women achieved between 53.9 to 89.5% of the H-to-Q activation ratios of men, for the exercises assessed. In a separate analysis of strength matched women and men, women achieved between 35.9 to 76.0% of the H-to-Q ratios of men, for these exercises.

Conclusions:

Hamstring resistance training exercises offer differing degrees of H and Q activation and ratios. Women compared with men, are less able to activate the hamstrings and/or more able to activate the quadriceps. Women may require disproportionately greater training for the hamstrings compared with the quadriceps.