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Shannon David and Mary Larson

relationships to in order to improve patient treatment adherence and subsequent patient outcome (ie, activities of daily living, return to play). 2 , 14 , 21 The purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of athletesperceptions of empathy in the patient–clinician relationship. Furthermore, this

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Ahmad F. Mohd Kassim and Ian D. Boardley

relevant athlete outcomes (e.g.,  Boardley, Kavussanu, & Ring, 2008 ). However, to date researchers have not investigated links between athletesperceptions of their coach’s effectiveness and all four of the athlete-level outcomes outlined by Côté and Gilbert. As such, the primary aim of the current

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Damien Clement and Vanessa R. Shannon

Context:

According to the buffering hypothesis, social support moderates the harmful effects of stress and, in turn, indirectly affects injured athletes’ health and well-being. Previous research suggests that perceptions of social support influence athletes’ psychological reactions, as well as their rehabilitation adherence, but additional research in this area is warranted.

Objective:

To examine injured athletes’ perceptions regarding satisfaction, availability, and contribution for each of the 8 types of social support.

Design:

Descriptive.

Setting:

Mid-Atlantic Division II and III institutions.

Participants:

49 injured athletes.

Main Outcome Measures:

Social support was assessed using a modified version of the Social Support Survey.

Results:

Injured athletes were significantly more satisfied with social support provided by athletic trainers (ATCs) than that provided by coaches and teammates. In addition, injured athletes reported that social support provided by ATCs contributed significantly more to their overall well-being. Athletes reported several significant differences regarding satisfaction and contribution to well-being among the 8 different types of social support.

Conclusions:

Injury, an unavoidable part of sport, is often accompanied by negative psychological reactions. This reaction may have a negative influence on an athlete’s experience of injury and rehabilitation. Findings suggest that perceptions of social support provided by ATCs have the greatest influence on injured athletes’ rehabilitation and well-being.

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Tiffanye M. Vargas-Tonsing, Nicholas D. Myers and Deborah L. Feltz

Previous research has offered insight into coaches’ perceptions of various efficacy-enhancing techniques but not athletes’ perceptions of their coaches’ techniques. The purpose of the present research was to compare coaches’ and athletes’ perceptions of efficacy enhancing techniques. Male (n = 29) and female (n = 49) baseball, basketball, softball, and soccer coaches and teams were surveyed from Division II and III collegiate programs. Results found that the strategies that coaches perceived they used most, as well as were the most effective, were instruction-drilling, acting confident themselves, and encouraging positive talk. Athletes had similar perceptions to their coaches regarding coaches’ use and effectiveness of efficacy techniques. However, closer examination revealed coaches’ and athletes’ mean perceptions of these techniques to vary among levels of congruence and incongruence. Exploratory analyses were also conducted on coaches’ and athletes’ perceptions by gender.

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Barrett Wilson, Sandra E. Short and Martin W. Short

This experimental study examined differences in athletes’ perceptions of a coach who faked confidence. The participants (n = 29) were elite hockey players from the Dallas Stars organization and North Dakota men’s hockey program. They completed a questionnaire after watching a video of a coach draw up a neutral zone forecheck. Participants then read a short scenario that explained that the coach was faking his confidence regarding his knowledge about the strategy he presented. The athletes then completed the same set of questions again. Paired-sample t-tests compared the athletes’ ratings before and after they were told that the coach was faking his confidence. The questions were about coach’s confidence (in general), the coach’s confidence in the strategy he presented, and the athlete’s perception that the coach would be confident in his ability to explain a different strategy. All values significantly decreased (p = .00) after the participants were told that the coach was faking confidence. From the qualitative data, three dimensions (i.e., confidence, knowledge, and presentation style) were prominent. These qualitative results provide insight as to why the athletes’ perceptions of the coach changed from positive (e.g., athletes’ perceived the coach was confident) to negative (e.g., athletes’ perceived that the coach was not confident) after finding out the coach was faking his confidence. Coaches should be aware that they can effectively fake confidence. However, if a coach were to fake it and “get caught,” then they should know that the athletes’ perceptions of them may become negative quickly.

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Erika Hunt and Sandra Short

Objective:

To study athletes perceptions of adhesive ankle taping.

Design:

A qualitative study where athletes were interviewed regarding adhesive ankle taping.

Setting:

The University of North Dakota in Grand Forks, ND, USA.

Participants:

Eleven collegiate athletes, all currently taping their ankles, representative of three groups: recent injury, past injury, and no prior injury.

Results:

Taping resulted in feelings of increased confidence, increased strength, and decreased anxiety for injury or reinjury. Differences were found in responses given by the participants in the three groups.

Conclusions:

Taping has a psychological impact on athletes. Athletic trainers should make sure they educate athletes about the uses and functions of adhesive tape.

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Danielle Lovett Carter and Norelee Kennedy

Background:

Hip arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure. Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is being increasingly recognized as a cause of hip pain in athletes and is a growing indication for arthroscopic surgery. Few studies have attempted to address patient views on outcome after arthroscopy, and no qualitative studies have been carried out to date.

Objectives:

To explore athletes' perceptions of rehabilitation outcome, the rehabilitative process, and return to sport and to gain insight into factors that affected this process.

Methodology:

A retrospective qualitative approach was adopted using semistructured interviews. Eight eligible participants were interviewed. Each had been treated with hip arthroscopy for FAI from September to November 2010. Data were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis.

Results:

Three main themes emerged. (1) The ability to participate in sport; athletes were relatively satisfied with outcome despite some limitations in sporting ability. (2) Perceptions of hip problems; there was a lack of understanding and an association of hip problems with older people among the general public. (3) Athletes' perception of rehabilitation; athletes were dissatisfied with the rehabilitation and sought greater physiotherapy input.

Conclusions:

Overall, athletes were relatively satisfied with their outcome 1 y after hip arthroscopy, despite some having to adapt their sporting activities. Key areas that need to be addressed in future research include factors affecting outcomes of hip arthroscopy, longer-term outcomes, perception of FAI among the public and health practitioners, and the development of a standardized evidence-based rehabilitation protocol.

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Jennifer Bricker Bone and Mary D. Fry

Objective:

To determine whether athletes’ perceptions of social support from their certified athletic trainers (ATCs) were related to their beliefs about the rehabilitation process.

Design:

Division I athletes (N = 57) completed a survey including measures of social support and beliefs about rehabilitation.

Participants:

Division I college athletes (35 men, 22 women) who had sustained an injury that caused them to miss no less than 5 consecutive days.

Measurements:

The Social Support Survey (SSS) and the Sports Injury Rehabilitation Beliefs Survey (SIRBS).

Results:

Results revealed significant correlations between the SSS and the SIRBS scales only for athletes who had sustained severe injuries. Multiple-regression analyses revealed that the SSS scales were significant predictors of each of the SIRBS scales.

Conclusions:

Results suggest that when severely injured athletes perceive that their ATCs provide strong social support, they are more likely to believe in their rehabilitation programs.

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Hayley L. deBeaudrap, John G.H. Dunn and Nicholas L. Holt

The purpose of this study was to explore female varsity athletes’ perceptions of how they developed high levels of dispositional optimism in sport. Eighty-three female varsity athletes completed a domain-specific version of the Life Orientation Test (LOT: Scheier & Carver, 1985). Nine participants (M age = 19.33 years, SD = 1.5) who had high dispositional optimism in sport then completed individual semistructured interviews. Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis methodology was used. Results showed that during childhood, participants perceived that their parents were supportive, provided feedback, and allowed them to have choice over the sports they played. During adolescence, coaches began to play an important role and participants were also able to learn about being optimistic through the positive and negative experiences they encountered. During early adulthood, participants developed personal narratives about the ways in which they approached sport with optimism.

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Aaron Clopton

The current study sought to trace the origin of gender disparity in the coaching landscape from student-athletes’ perceptions, framed through Social Cognitive Career Theory. To examine the cognitive-person variables in line with previous coaching and SCCT research, scales were derived for perceived social supports and barriers, perceptions of positive and negative outcome expectations, and perceived self-efficacy in coaching. Student-athletes were randomly selected online from 23 institutions across three Bowl Championship Series conferences, while data were coded into a MANCOVA. Results indicated male student-athletes reported greater levels for perceived barriers to enter the coaching profession, perceptions of positive outcome expectations, and for coaching self-efficacy than did their female counterparts. These findings suggest that gender differences within the college coaching profession may be, in part, due to perceptions formed before entry.