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Harold A. Riemer and Packianathan Chelladurai

The development of the l5-dimension, 56-item Athlete Satisfaction Questionnaire (ASQ) was based on Chelladurai and Riemer’s (1997) classification of facets of athlete satisfaction. Qualitative procedures included item generation, expert judgment, and independent placement of items in relevant facets. Quantitative procedures, item-to-total correlations, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, involving 172 undergraduate students and 614 Canadian university athletes, confirmed the construct validity of the scale. Correlations between the ASQ’s subscales and scales of commitment and negative affectivity provided evidence of criterion-related validity. Reliability estimates (Cronbach’s alpha) ranged from .78 to .95. The 15 facets of ASQ encompassed salient aspects of athletic participation, performance (both individual and team), leadership, the team, the organization, and the athlete.

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Packianathan Chelladurai and Harold A. Riemer

Although several authors have emphasized the need to treat the athlete as the prime beneficiary of intercollegiate athletics, there has been little effort to assess athlete reactions to their experiences. This paper stresses the uniqueness of athletic teams, develops a rationale for measuring athlete satisfaction, and emphasizes that athlete satisfaction can be used as a measure of organizational effectiveness. A classification of the various facets of satisfaction in athletics is presented. A facet is classified by the following criteria: whether it (a) is task- or social-related, (b) is an outcome or a process, and (c) affects the individual or the team. The extent to which the identified facets of satisfaction are exhaustive, exclusive, and internally homogeneous is discussed.

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Eric W. MacIntosh and Popi Sotiriadou

this advance in knowledge, the authors undertook a research project designed to explore the following research questions: What event service-related factors affect pre-elite athlete satisfaction? and How do the athletes’ experiences influence their performance and intention to transition to the

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William C. Way, Ashley M. Coker-Cranney and Jack C. Watson II

to evaluate and document the outcomes of these initiatives. While some have examined the perceived availability of mental health services among student-athletes ( Moore, 2016 ), there has been no published research to explore student-athletessatisfaction with the availability of mental health

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Maureen R. Weiss and Warren D. Friedrichs

Based on Chelladurai and Carron's (1978) multidimensional theory of leadership, this study examined the relationship of leader behaviors, coach attributes, and institutional variables to team performance and athlete satisfaction. Collegiate basketball players (n = 251) representing 23 NAIA teams assessed their coach's leader behaviors and also indicated their satisfaction with various facets of their athletic experience. Regression analyses revealed that neither institutional nor coach attribute variables were significantly related to team performance or satisfaction. Leader behaviors, however, were found to be significantly related to these team outcomes. Analyses with individual satisfaction scores revealed that size of school, coach attributes, and leader behaviors were predictive of athlete satisfaction. Coaches who engaged in more frequent rewarding behavior, social support behavior, and a democratic style of decision-making produced more satisfied athletes. Moreover, younger coaches and those with better previous win/loss records were related to higher levels of athlete satisfaction.

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Ashley M. Duguay, Todd M. Loughead and Krista J. Munroe-Chandler

The purpose of the current study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a season-long athlete leadership development program. Participants were 27 female varsity athletes who participated in four leadership workshops throughout the season, each 1 hr in duration. All of the participants completed inventories measuring leadership behaviors, cohesion, communication, athlete satisfaction, and peer motivational climate. Overall, the results showed significant differences in regards to leadership behaviors, athlete satisfaction, and peer motivational climate from pre- to postintervention. Further, follow-up focus groups were also conducted to assess the social validity of the leadership development program. These focus groups revealed important insight into program structure, influence of the program, leadership challenges, and suggestions for future improvements. These findings provide researchers, sport psychology consultants, and coaches with important information regarding the effectiveness of this athlete leadership development program in targeting human and social capital development.

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Tammy Horne and Albert V. Carron

Three major issues were examined in the present study: (a) the variables discriminating between compatible and incompatible coach-athlete dyads; (b) the relationship between coach-athlete compatibility and athlete performance; and (c) the relationship between compatibility and athlete satisfaction. Subjects were 77 coach-athlete dyads from female intercollegiate teams. Compatibility was assessed using a sport-adapted version of Schutz's (1966) Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO-B) scale and Chelladurai and Saleh's (1980) Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS). Self-ratings of the quality of the coach-athlete relationship, athlete performance, and satisfaction with the coach's leadership were obtained. There were two variables that significantly discriminated between compatible and incompatible dyads. The sole variable predicting athletes' performance perceptions was the score reflecting discrepancy between athlete perceptions and preferences on the LSS reward dimension. Variables predicting athlete satisfaction were discrepancy between athlete perceptions and preferences on the LSS dimensions of training, reward, and social support. Recommendations for future research in this area are discussed.

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P. Chelladurai

This study examined the relationship between the discrepancy between preferred and perceived leadership and athletes' satisfaction. The five preferred and perceived leadership behaviors assessed were Training and Instruction, Democratic Behavior, Autocratic Behavior, Social Support, and Positive Feedback. Four facets of satisfaction were measured: Satisfaction with Individual Performance, Satisfaction with Team Performance, Satisfaction with Leadership, and Satisfaction with Overall Involvement. The athletes were selected from sports differentiated on the basis of task variability and/or task dependence. Discrepancy in leadership was computed by subtracting the perception of a specific dimension of leader behavior from preference for such behavior. The results showed that discrepancy in leadership for athletes in the various sports was associated with three measures of satisfaction: Satisfaction with Team Performance, with Leadership, and with Overall Involvement. Further, Training and Instruction, and Positive Feedback were the most common dimensions of leader behavior affecting athletes' satisfaction.

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Deidre Connelly and Robert J. Rotella

This paper describes issues and strategies related to teaching social assertiveness skills to athletes. Social assertiveness is examined as a key ingredient for effective communication and athlete satisfaction. Communication difficulties and issues frequently encountered in working with athletes, relevant to assertiveness skills, are discussed along with examination of team member issues that athletes must confront in order to function effectively in assertiveness situations. Specific strategies for teaching assertiveness skills to groups and individuals are presented and include applications to various sport settings.

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Sophia Jowett and Duncan Cramer

Guided by the work-family interface literature, this study examined the concept of spillover in a sample of elite athletes. It was conceptualized that there would be potential negativity and interference between athletes’ intense demands of competitive sport and efforts to maintain positive relationships with their partners. Antecedents and consequences of the potential spillover phenomenon were assessed in a sample of 87 elite-level athletes who had either romantic or marital, heterosexual relationships. Findings indicated that while trust, commitment, and communication were not strongly related to spillover, negative transactions were. Moreover, the occurrence of spillover was negatively related to sport satisfaction and positively to depressive symptoms. Finally, it was found that a mechanism by which perceived negative transactions were linked to athletes’ satisfaction and depression was through spillover. Spillover can help explain how personal relationships and sport are likely to contribute to athletes’ performance accomplishment and overall well-being.