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Leslee A. Fisher and Craig A. Wrisberg

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Charles A. Maher

This article reflects a response to the case of a freshman student-athlete lacrosse player who was in the process of transitioning into a Division I environment. Within the context of the case response, guidelines were provided for assessment of the student-athlete at four separate, yet interrelated levels of psychological development. These levels were: as a person; as a student-athlete who exists in a high-risk environment; as a teammate; and as a performer in the sport of lacrosse. Relatedly, it was suggested how the strengths and needs of this individual could be assessed and how resulting needs assessment information could be used in the design of an individual plan for the student-athlete. As such, it was suggested that the individual plan would most likely center on helping the individual to become increasingly aware of herself as a person and performer, to offer guidance in adhering to her physical rehabilitation, and to develop a routine for her daily preparation and for monitoring her practice and game performances. The case response concludes with a description of a framework for determining the student-athlete’s readiness for engaging in the plan and its activities.

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Sigal Ben-Zaken, Yoav Meckel, Ronnie Lidor, Dan Nemet and Alon Eliakim

The aim of the study was to assess whether an aerobic-favoring genetic profile can predict the success of a shift from middle- to long-distance running. Thirteen elite middle-distance runners were divided into successful and nonsuccessful groups in their shift toward long-distance runs. All the runners began their training program at the age of 14–15, and after 6–7 years, changed focus and adjusted their training program to fit longer running distances. The participants’ personal records in the longer events were set at the age of 25–27, about 3–5 years after the training readjustment took place. The endurance genetic score based on 9 polymorphisms was computed as the endurance genetic distance score (EGDS9). The power genetic distance score (PGDS5) was computed based on 5 power-related genetic polymorphisms. The mean EGDS9 was significantly higher among the successful group than the nonsuccessful group (37.1 and 23.3, respectively, p < .005, effect size 0.75), while the mean PGDS5 was not statistically different between the 2 groups (p = .13). Our findings suggest the possible use of genetic profiles as an added tool for determining appropriate competitive transition and specialization in young athletes involved in early phases of talent development.

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B. Christine Green

Sport development has become a leading issue for sport policymakers and sport managers worldwide. Sport development systems have two main objectives: to increase the number of participants actively engaged in sport and to enhance the quality of performances in sport. This is the foundation of the much used, but rarely examined, pyramid analogy in sport development. In this article, the pyramid model of sport development is explored, and its underlying assumptions are critiqued. Three tasks necessary for an effective pyramid model are identified: athlete recruitment, athlete retention, and athlete transitions. Recruitment requires the assistance of significant others, as well as the proliferation of many smaller, local-level sport programs. Retention requires a focus on motivation, socialization, and commitment. Advancement requires that programs be linked vertically and that athletes be aided in processes of locating and socializing into new levels of involvement. Although specific strategies for enhancing recruitment, retention, and transition of athletes can be identified from the literature, further research is needed.

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Garry D. Wheeler, Laurie A. Malone, Sandy VanVlack, Ewen R. Nelson and Robert D. Steadward

We examined the transition experiences and adjustment to retirement among 18 athletes with disabilities. Adopting a grounded theory approach, we interviewed athletes using a semistructured format based on Schlossberg’s (1981, 1984) transition model. Three basic questions were asked regarding the competitive period, events surrounding the retirement decision, and adjustment to retirement. Data were analyzed by an iterative process and a model was developed. Sport was a highly valued part of the lives of athletes; personal commitment to sport was evident and often taken to extremes including overtraining and ignoring medical advice. Transition from sport was an emotional experience for athletes, and difficulties were associated with voluntary versus involuntary retirement and readiness or lack of readiness for retirement. Coping with retirement appeared to be facilitated by readiness and having other job and family interests outside of sport. Many athletes expressed concern regarding chronic injuries and aging with a disability. We suggest that the Schlossberg model is a useful framework for examining athlete transition and adjustment to retirement.

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Matea Wasend and Nicole M. LaVoi

A plethora of research on barriers facing women in the coaching profession exists, but less attention has been devoted to female student-athletes’ transition into coaching. Some research suggests that female athletes who are coached by women are more likely to become coaches. In the present study, existing research is extended by examining the relationship between collegiate female basketball players’ post-playing career behavior and the gender of their collegiate head coach. Two research questions are addressed: (1) Are female collegiate Division-I basketball players who are coached by female head coaches more likely to enter the coaching profession than athletes who are coached by men? And; (2) If female basketball players do enter coaching, are those who were coached by women more likely to persist in coaching? Collegiate head coach gender did not emerge as a significant predictor of athletes’ likelihood to enter coaching, but logistic regression indicated that athletes who did enter coaching were 4.1-times more likely to stay in coaching if they had a female head coach. This study extends the scarce and outdated body of research on the potential salience of same-sex coaching role models for female athletes and provides baseline data on collegiate athletes’ entry rate into coaching, lending support to advocacy aimed at reversing the current stagnation of women in the sport coaching profession.

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Sophie Knights, Emma Sherry, Mandy Ruddock-Hudson and Paul O’Halloran

increased their focus on and recognition of the importance of athlete welfare and well-being, there are still numerous challenges both for athletes themselves as well as sport organizations regarding athletestransition out of sport and their life experiences in retirement. Although there are support

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Anne Holding, Jo-Annie Fortin, Joëlle Carpentier, Nora Hope and Richard Koestner

pressures ( Park et al., 2013 ). A theoretical background rooted in motivation psychology may be beneficial for the literature to integrate various findings on the subject, improve our prediction of athlete retirement outcomes, and ultimately build more effective interventions for athlete transition

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Aaron Nelson, Nathan Koslakiewicz and Thomas Gus Almonroeder

required to sprint forward before performing the land-and-jump task. This type of sprint and cut task could not be performed until the late stages of rehabilitation, as athletes transition back to sports. Hence, we intended to supplement these earlier findings by utilizing a task (double-leg drop landing

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Eric W. MacIntosh and Popi Sotiriadou

satisfaction with the event, performance, and intention formation, and act as a catalyst for athlete transition into higher levels of sport. This study represents a significant contribution to understanding the development of young pre-elite athletes as opposed to more mature or top elite athletes. To achieve