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Georgia Cervin

power imbalance between the FIG and IOC allowed the IOC to exert pressure and influence on the FIG about how it governed gymnastics. This pressure to abide by Olympic norms is seen in policies developed across several fields, including those related to gender, economics, and athlete welfare, all of

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George Wilson, Dan Martin, James P. Morton and Graeme L. Close

weight ( Warrington et al., 2009 ; Wilson et al., 2014 ). As such, low BMD is a continual cause of concern for jockey athlete welfare, considering the increased risk of fracture in the event of a fall ( Dolan et al., 2012 ; Jackson et al., 2017 ; Wilson et al., 2012 , 2015b ). Despite the well

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Alexia Tam, Gretchen Kerr and Ashley Stirling

about his desire to be there and support athletes when they are injured, but given the increased hypersensitivity surrounding athlete welfare in sport, coaches are questioning what appropriate or inappropriate support for the athlete is. When sharing an example of having to carry athletes off the field

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George Wilson, Jerry Hill, Daniel Martin, James P. Morton and Graeme L. Close

Flat jockeys in Great Britain (GB) are classified as apprentices if they are aged less than 26 years and/or have ridden less than 95 winners. To gain experience, apprentices are allocated a weight allowance of up to 7 lb (3.2 kg). Given that there is no off-season in GB flat horseracing, jockeys are required to maintain their racing weight all year round. In light of recent work determining that current apprentices are considerably heavier than previous generations and that smaller increases have been made in the minimum weight, the aim of this study was to assess if the minimum weight in GB was achievable. To make the minimum weight (50.8 kg) with the maximal weight allowance requires a body mass of ∼46.6 kg while maintaining a fat mass >2.5 kg (the lowest fat mass previously reported in weight-restricted males). Thirty-two male apprentice jockeys were assessed for body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The mean (SD) total mass and fat mass were 56 (2.9) kg and 7.2 (1.8) kg, respectively. Given that the lowest theoretical body mass for this group was 51.2 (2.3) kg, only one of 32 jockeys was deemed feasible to achieve the minimum weight with their current weight allowance and maintaining fat mass >2.5 kg. Furthermore, urine osmolality of 780 (260) mOsmol/L was seen, with 22 (out of 32) jockeys classed as dehydrated (>700 mOsmols/L), indicating that body mass would be higher when euhydrated. Additionally, we observed that within new apprentice jockeys licensed during this study (N = 41), only one jockey was able to achieve the minimum weight. To facilitate the goal of achieving race weight with minimal disruptions to well-being, the authors’ data suggest that the minimum weight for GB apprentices should be raised.

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Michael Reinboth and Joan L. Duda

Grounded in achievement goal theory (Nicholls, 1989), the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of the perceived motivational climate and perceptions of ability to indices of psychological and physical well-being among male adolescents taking part in team sports. Participants were 265 adolescent soccer and cricket players. Reported self-esteem was the lowest among low perceived ability athletes participating in an environment that was perceived to be high in its ego-involving features, but high among athletes perceiving a highly task-involving environment regardless of their perceptions of competence. Contingent self-esteem, physical exhaustion, and reported physical symptoms were positively predicted by perceptions of an ego-involving climate. The results suggest that an examination of variations in the perceived motivational climate may provide further insight into whether sport participation can be health promotive or potentially damaging to athletes’ welfare.

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James W. Adie, Joan L. Duda and Nikos Ntoumanis

Grounded in the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework (Elliot & McGregor, 2001), a model was tested examining the hypothesized relationships between approach and avoidance (mastery and performance) goals, challenge and threat appraisals of sport competition, and positive and negative indices of well-being (i.e., self-esteem, positive, and negative affect). A further aim was to determine the degree to which the cognitive appraisals mediated the relationship between the four achievement goals and the indicators of athletes’ welfare. Finally, measurement and structural invariance was tested with respect to gender in the hypothesized model. An alternative model was also estimated specifying self-esteem as an antecedent of the four goals and cognitive appraisals. Four hundred and twenty-four team sport participants (M age = 24.25) responded to a multisection questionnaire. Structural equation modeling analyses provided support for the hypothesized model only. Challenge and threat appraisals partially mediated the relationships observed between mastery-based goals and the well-being indicators. Lastly, the hypothesized model was found to be invariant across gender.

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Gretchen Kerr, Anthony Battaglia and Ashley Stirling

.S. Olympic Committee (USOC)–designated Olympic training site where many of the abuses occurred ( Hauser & Zraick, 2018 ; McPhee & Dowden, 2018 ). Together, Nassar’s reputation of being a highly skilled and athlete-centered doctor, his relationships with authority figures, and poorly enforced athlete welfare

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Jörg Krieger, Lindsay Parks Pieper and Ian Ritchie

also influenced decisions in women’s gymnastics, as did concerns about finances and participant well-being. Georgia Cervin explores the history of the International Gymnastics Federation (FIG)’s policies in regard to gender, economics, and athlete welfare. She argues that on all three fronts, the FIG

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Leslee A. Fisher

Kennedy (a pseudonym) is a USA National Governing Body President who is committed to female student-athlete welfare and advocacy. Kennedy recently contracted with Skyler (also a pseudonym)—a coach educator—to develop coach education modules to ensure that coaches in the organization are providing

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Andrew J.A. Hall, Leigh Jones and Russell J.J. Martindale

/teach me how to deal positively with any nerves or worries that I experience (e.g., coaches, athlete welfare manager, psychologists) 3.06 My coach doesn’t appear to be that interested in my life outside of sport 3.06 My coaches care more about helping me to become an elite performer, than they do about