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Legacy Branding: The Posthumous Utilization and Management of Athlete Brands

Antonio S. Williams, Zack P. Pedersen, and Kelly J. Brummett

the concept of athlete branding has continually grown over the last two decades. Different branding components relating to athlete brands, such as brand image ( Arai et al., 2014 ), brand extensions ( Walsh & Williams, 2017 ), brand associations ( Williams, Kim, & Choi, 2015 ), and brand equity ( Park

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The Role of Self-Brand Connection on the Relationship Between Athlete Brand Image and Fan Outcomes

Thilo Kunkel, Rui Biscaia, Akiko Arai, and Kwame Agyemang

number of followers on Instagram than his team, the Philadelphia 76ers (1.8 million). These athletes often act as entrepreneurs of their own brands ( Ratten, 2015 ) and require strategic growth management guidance to build their audience ( Agyemang, Williams, & Kim, 2015 ). Athlete branding has become a

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Life After the Gridiron: Examining Retired National Football League Athletes’ Self-Presentation Strategies and Follower Engagement on Instagram Personal and Business Pages

Felipe Tamayo, Natasha T. Brison, and Hailey A. Harris

employers ( McCann, 2018 ) and may resort to self-generated opportunities through athlete brand extensions. In addition, it is crucial to note the large rosters on NFL squads can make it difficult for role players to get recognized, and the fact that players wear helmets can impact athlete recognition

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Fan Engagement in 15 Seconds: Athletes’ Relationship Marketing During a Pandemic via TikTok

Yiran Su, Bradley J. Baker, Jason P. Doyle, and Meimei Yan

-branding tool. In doing so, we ask the following three questions: (a) How are athletes using TikTok to engage fans during the pandemic? (b) What elements make TikTok a distinct engagement tool for athletes? and (c) What is the role of TikTok in athletesbranding efforts? Our results shed light on social media

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Implicit and Explicit Affective Evaluations of Athlete Brands: The Associative Evaluation–Emotional Appraisal–Intention Model of Athlete Endorsements

Yonghwan Chang, Yong Jae Ko, and Brad D. Carlson

( Elberse & Verleun, 2012 ). Recent scholarship also reveals that consumers enhance their self-esteem and life satisfaction by developing emotional attachments to athlete brands ( Carlson & Donavan, 2013 ; Walsh & Williams, 2017 ). Given their potential to impact both business success and consumer well

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Interview With Michael Lahoud, Professional Soccer Player: Lessons of Personal Athlete Branding via Social Media

Thilo Kunkel, Olan Scott, and Anthony Beaton

Michael Lahoud is a professional soccer player who currently plays for Miami FC in the North American Soccer League (NASL). He was born in Sierra Leone, where he escaped civil war when he was 6 years old. As a refugee, soccer helped him integrate in the United States, where he was drafted as the ninth overall pick in the 2009 Major League Soccer (MLS) superdraft. He is a community advocate who uses his sport to support charitable efforts such as the Wall Las Memorias project, the NoH8 campaign, and Schools for Salone. He was the MLS Humanitarian of the Year in 2010, and, together with Kei Kamara, he is the recipient of the 2015 FIFPro World Players’ Union Merit Award (a prize worth $25,000), which recognized their involvement in the Schools for Salone project that builds schools in their home country of Sierra Leone. His brand is Soccer can make a difference. This interview consists of two parts, with the first part being conducted in December 2015 when he was a player with the MLS team Philadelphia Union and the second part being conducted in July 2016 after two transfers within 4 months. The interviews provide an overview of his approach to athlete branding via social media and its impact on his career.

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To Extend or Not Extend a Human Brand: An Analysis of Perceived Fit and Attitudes Toward Athlete Brand Extensions

Patrick Walsh and Antonio Williams

While athletes have been building and leveraging their brands for many years by introducing brand extensions, research on sport brand extensions has primarily focused on factors that influence the success of team-related extensions. However, as there is potential risk involved when introducing brand extensions, it is important for athletes to understand how consumers respond to extensions they may introduce. Through the use of self-administered web-based surveys this study provides the initial examination of this topic by exposing participants (n = 292) to hypothetical brand extensions and investigating factors that may influence perceived fit and attitudes toward athlete brand extensions. Partial least squares path modeling suggests that athlete prestige had the most significant effect on fit and attitudes for a brand extension that is considered to be a fit with an athlete’s image, while athlete attachment had the most influence on fit and attitudes for a brand extension with low perceived fit.

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A Tale of Two Brands: Examining Elite Female Athletes’ Branding and Self-Presentation Strategies Over Time

Hailey A. Harris and Natasha T. Brison

. Previous research defined and conceptualized an athlete brand ( Arai et al., 2014 ) and suggested branding strategies can change over the course of an athlete’s career as they progress in their sport ( Hasaan et al., 2019 ). These strategies may be unique to the preferences of the athlete and according to

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The New Wave of Influencers: Examining College Athlete Identities and the Role of Homophily and Parasocial Relationships in Leveraging Name, Image, and Likeness

Yiran Su, Xuan Guo, Christine Wegner, and Thomas Baker

, 2022 ). For example, in the context of fitness influencers, Su et al. ( 2021 ) showed that women are less likely than men to purchase products endorsed by a male influencer who conspicuously displays a masculine physique. When studying athlete branding, scholars have examined gendered self

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Human Brands in Sport: Athlete Brand Personality and Identification

Brad D. Carlson and D. Todd Donavan

By integrating social identity theory with brand personality, the authors test a model of how perceptions of human brands affect consumer’s level of cognitive identification. The findings suggest that consumers view athletes as human brands with unique personalities. Additional findings demonstrate that athlete prestige and distinctiveness leads to the evaluation of athlete identification. Once consumers identified with the athlete, they were more likely to feel an emotional attachment to the athlete, identify with the athlete’s team, purchase team-related paraphernalia and increase their team-related viewership habits. The findings extend previous research on human brands and brand personalities in sports. Marketers can use the information gleaned from this study to better promote products that are closely associated with well-recognized and attractive athletes, thereby increasing consumer retail spending. In addition, the findings offer new insights to sports marketers seeking to increase team-related spectatorship by promoting the image of easily recognizable athletes.