States Tennis Association) have commissioned funded research to better understand the contributing factors to athlete ill-being (e.g., athlete burnout). Athlete Burnout The intense training regimen that is common place in competition sport resulting in athlete burnout has received increasing practical
The Relationship Between Passion, Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction and Athlete Burnout: Examining Direct and Indirect Effects
Sofie Kent, Kieran Kingston, and Kyle F. Paradis
Athlete Burnout Prevention Strategies Used by U.S. Collegiate Soccer Coaches
Emily Kroshus and J.D. DeFreese
Athlete burnout is an important psychological health concern that may be influenced by coach behaviors. Participants were 933 collegiate soccer coaches who described their utilization of burnout prevention strategies. Deductive content analysis was used to categorize and interpret responses. The most frequently endorsed prevention strategies involved managing/limiting physical stressors. Reducing nonsport stressors and promoting autonomy and relatedness were also endorsed. Motivational climate changes and secondary prevention strategies were infrequently reported. These findings can help inform the design of educational programming to ensure that all coaches are aware of the range of ways in which they can help prevent athlete burnout.
Is Athlete Burnout More than Just Stress? A Sport Commitment Perspective
Thomas D. Raedeke
This study examined athlete burnout from a commitment perspective, which suggests that athletes can be involved in sport for a combination of reasons related to sport attraction (want to be involved) and sport entrapment (have to be involved). According to this framework, athletes are likely to experience burnout if they are involved in sport primarily for entrapment-related reasons. Female and male age-group swimmers (N = 236) completed a questionnaire that assessed theoretical determinants of commitment and burnout (emotional/ physical exhaustion, swim devaluation, and reduced swim accomplishment). Cluster analysis was used to partition swimmers into profiles based on the theoretical determinants of commitment. Subsequent analyses of variance compared emergent cluster groups on burnout. Results revealed that athletes who exhibited characteristics reflecting sport entrapment generally demonstrated higher burnout scores than athletes who were primarily involved in sport for attraction-related reasons. These results provided support for a commitment perspective as a viable framework for understanding athlete burnout.
Perfectionism and Athlete Burnout in Junior Elite Athletes: The Mediating Role of Motivation Regulations
Paul R. Appleton and Andrew P. Hill
This study investigated whether motivation regulations mediate the relationship between socially prescribed and self-oriented dimensions of perfectionism and athlete burnout. Two-hundred and thirty-one (N = 231) elite junior athletes completed the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (Flett, Hewitt, Boucher, Davidson, & Munro, 2000), the Sport Motivation Scale (Pelletier, Fortier, Valle-rand, Tuson, & Blais, 1995), and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (Raedeke & Smith, 2009). Multiple mediator regression analyses revealed that amotivation mediated the relationship between socially prescribed perfectionism and burnout symptoms. Amotivation and intrinsic motivation emerged as significant mediators of the relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and burnout symptoms. The findings suggest that patterns of motivation regulations are important factors in the perfectionism-athlete burnout relationship.
Features and Effects of Athlete Burnout Among Top Amateur Female Rugby Union Players
Kirsty Martin and Hee Jung Hong
The high-performance environment of top-level sport can be the perfect place for individuals to thrive and achieve their sporting potential. However, the increased pressure on performance may have the opposite effect. Athlete burnout has proven difficult to define but occurs when the demands placed
A Person-Centered Exploration of Athlete Burnout Across a Competitive Season
J.D. DeFreese and Alan L. Smith
Athlete burnout is a maladaptive psychological syndrome characterized by emotional and physical exhaustion (i.e., emotional/physical fatigue from sport demands), reduced sense of accomplishment (i.e., inefficacy and a tendency for negative sport-based self-evaluation), and sport devaluation (i
Examining Perceptions of Teammates’ Burnout and Training Hours in Athlete Burnout
Ralph Appleby, Paul Davis, Louise Davis, and Henrik Gustafsson
( Gould, Tuffey, Udry, & Loehr, 1997 ; Gustafsson, De Freese, & Madigan, 2017 ). Athlete burnout is a psychological syndrome that is characterized by symptoms of emotional and physical exhaustion, reduced sporting accomplishment, and the devaluation of sports participation ( Raedeke, 1997 ; Raedeke
The Influence of Social Support Provider on Adolescent Athlete Burnout and Engagement
Kathleen T. Mellano and Christine Pacewicz
athletes’ ability to cope with demands and influence their perceived sport experiences. These differing sport experiences can be assessed by exploring markers of well- and ill-being within the sport environment. Specifically, examining athlete burnout and engagement can address this concern and may
Psychometric Properties of a Modified Athlete Burnout Questionnaire in the Collegiate Athletics Setting
Madeline P. Casanova, Ashley J. Reeves, and Russell T. Baker
Multiple professional organizations have emphasized the importance of recognizing the mental health concerns of patients 1 and student-athletes. 2 Among student-athletes, burnout is of growing concern given its associations with mental health disorders, such as depression, in youth and college
Athlete Burnout: A Longitudinal Qualitative Study
Scott L. Cresswell and Robert C. Eklund
Athlete burnout has been a concern to sport organizations, the media, and researchers because of its association with negative welfare and performance outcomes (Gould, Udry, Tuffey, & Loehr, 1996; Smith, 1986). Conclusions drawn in existing cross-sectional studies (e.g., Cresswell & Eklund, 2006c; Gould, Tuffey, Udry, & Loehr, 1996) are limited because they are not based on data sensitive to the dynamic nature of athlete burnout. In the current study, professional New Zealand rugby players (n = 9) and members of team management (n = 3) were interviewed multiple times over a 12-month period in an effort to capture accounts reflecting the dynamic nature of their experiences. In these interviews, some players reported experiences consistent with multidimensional descriptions of burnout in the extant literature. During the course of the interviews players reported positive and negative changes within their experiences. Players’ experiences and adaptations were interpreted using existing theoretical explanations.