broadly referred to as tactile communication, and its impact on athlete performance and team dynamics. Heckel, Allen, and Blackmon ( 1986 ) completed what appears to be the first study of tactile communication in sport. Studying the touch behaviors of winning team members in men’s intramural flag football
Inge Milius, Wade D. Gilbert, Danielle Alexander, and Gordon A. Bloom
Kai C. Bormann, Paul Schulte-Coerne, Mathias Diebig, and Jens Rowold
The goal of this study is to examine the effects of coaches’ transformational leadership on player performance. To advance existing research, we examine (a) effects on individual and team performance and (b) consider joint moderating effects of players’ win orientation and teams’ competitive performance on the leadership– individual performance link. In a three-source sample from German handball teams, we collected data on 336 players and 30 coaches and teams. Results showed positive main effects of transformational leadership’s facet of articulating a vision (AV) on team and individual performance and negative main effects of providing an appropriate model (PAM) on team performance. With regard to moderating effects, AV increased and PAM decreased individual performance when both moderators were low, and intellectual stimulation had a positive effect when both were high. This study expands insights into the potential and limitation of transformational leadership with a strong focus on the role of situational contingencies.
Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim, and Louise M. Burke
performance by restoring homeostasis between two exercise bouts. For example, the amino acid N-acetylcysteine acts as an anti-oxidant that may assist in athlete recovery through mediation with exercise-induced reactive oxygen species (see Braakhuis & Hopkins, 2015 ). Such an outcome may impact athlete
Jack Hagyard, Jack Brimmell, Elizabeth J. Edwards, and Robert S. Vaughan
and coach rating of sport performance was significant ( p < .01; see Table 4 ), supporting the scales convergent validity. Table 4 Descriptive Statistics and Bivariate Correlations for Inhibitory Control and Athlete Performance M ( SD ) Bivariate correlations Total ( N = 91) Novice ( n = 29
Peter W. Harrison, Lachlan P. James, David G. Jenkins, Michael R. McGuigan, Robert W. Schuster, and Vincent G. Kelly
-exercise priming methods. Accordingly, investigation of the neuromuscular, hormonal, and perceptual responses following priming may help improve understanding of the holistic effects of priming strategies on athlete performance. 13 The primary aim of this study was to examine neuromuscular performance on the day
Nektarios A. Stavrou, Susan A. Jackson, Yannis Zervas, and Konstantinos Karteroliotis
The purposes of the current study were to examine (a) the differences in Flow State Scale (FSS) subscales between the 4 experiential states of the orthogonal model (apathy, anxiety, relaxation, and flow), (b) the relationship between challenge, skills, and flow experience; and (c) the relationship between flow experience and athletes’ performance. Two hundred twenty athletes volunteered to participate in this study. Challenge of the game and skills of the athlete were measured before and after competition. Thirty minutes after the competition, the FSS was used to measure flow experience. In addition, subjective and objective measures of athletes’ performance were assessed. Athletes in the flow and relaxation states revealed the most optimal states, whereas the athletes in the apathy state showed the least optimal state. There were positive associations between athletes’ flow experience and their performance measures, indicating that positive emotional states are related to elevated levels of performance. On the other hand, there were low or no correlations between athletes’ performance and reported challenge of the game, whereas skills of the athlete were moderately correlated with flow. Multiple-regression analysis demonstrated significant prediction of athletes’ performance based on flow experience during competition. Future research should examine the relationship between flow, athletes’ performance, and additional dispositional and state variables.
Sophia Jowett and Duncan Cramer
Guided by the work-family interface literature, this study examined the concept of spillover in a sample of elite athletes. It was conceptualized that there would be potential negativity and interference between athletes’ intense demands of competitive sport and efforts to maintain positive relationships with their partners. Antecedents and consequences of the potential spillover phenomenon were assessed in a sample of 87 elite-level athletes who had either romantic or marital, heterosexual relationships. Findings indicated that while trust, commitment, and communication were not strongly related to spillover, negative transactions were. Moreover, the occurrence of spillover was negatively related to sport satisfaction and positively to depressive symptoms. Finally, it was found that a mechanism by which perceived negative transactions were linked to athletes’ satisfaction and depression was through spillover. Spillover can help explain how personal relationships and sport are likely to contribute to athletes’ performance accomplishment and overall well-being.
Daniel Gould, Christy Greenleaf, Diane Guinan, and Yongchul Chung
As part of a larger project to examine variables perceived to influence performance in Olympic competition, this manuscript was designed to (a) report coaches’ perceptions of variables influencing Olympic athlete performance, (b) triangulate findings from surveys and interviews with Olympic athletes, and (c) examine coaches’ perceptions of variables influencing Olympic coaching effectiveness. Surveys were completed by 46 U.S. Atlanta Olympic coaches (46% of all U.S. coaches) and 19 U.S. Nagano coaches (45% of all U.S. coaches). A large number of variables were perceived by coaches to have influenced athlete performances and included having plans for dealing with distractions, strong team chemistry and cohesion, loud and enthusiastic crowd support, high levels of athlete confidence, and fair and effective team selection. Variables perceived to have influenced coaching effectiveness included markedly changed coaching behaviors, the inability to establish trust with athletes, the inability to effectively handle crisis situations, staying cool under pressure, and making fair but decisive decisions.
Peter Peeling, Gregory R. Cox, Nicola Bullock, and Louise M. Burke
We assessed the ingestion of a beetroot juice supplement (BR) on 4-min laboratory-based kayak performance in national level male (n = 6) athletes (Study A), and on 500 m on-water kayak time-trial (TT) performance in international level female (n = 5) athletes (Study B). In Study A, participants completed three laboratory-based sessions on a kayak ergometer, including a 7 × 4 min step test, and two 4 min maximal effort performance trials. Two and a half hours before the warm-up of each 4 min performance trial, athletes received either a 70 ml BR shot containing ~4.8 mmol of nitrate, or a placebo equivalent (BRPLA). The distance covered over the 4 min TT was not different between conditions; however, the average VO2 over the 4 min period was significantly lower in BR (p = .04), resulting in an improved exercise economy (p = .05). In Study B, participants completed two field-based 500 m TTs, separated by 4 days. Two hours before each trial, athletes received either two 70 ml BR shots containing ~9.6 mmol of nitrate, or a placebo equivalent (BRPLA). BR supplementation significantly enhanced TT performance by 1.7% (p = .01). Our results show that in national-level male kayak athletes, commercially available BR shots (70 ml) containing ~4.8 mmol of nitrate improved exercise economy during laboratory-based tasks predominantly reliant on the aerobic energy system. Furthermore, greater volumes of BR (140 ml; ~9.6 mmol nitrate) provided to international-level female kayak athletes resulted in enhancements to TT performance in the field.
Lewis A. Curry and Sameep D. Maniar
The purpose of this paper is to describe content and methods of an academic course offered twice annually at an NCAA Division I University. With empirical support to the effectiveness of this academic approach to psychological skills training presented elsewhere (Curry & Maniar, 2003), the focus of this paper is on the type and extent of each intervention treatment during the 15-week semester course (Vealey, 1994). Course content includes applied strategies for best performance targeting, arousal/affect control, identifying purpose, goal setting, imagery, sport confidence, trust, flow, sport nutrition, on-/off-field problem solving, self-esteem, and life skills education on eating disorders and drug/alcohol abuse. Teaching methods include narrative story telling, small group activities, journal writing, cognitive-behavioral homework, brainteasers, and active learning demonstrations.