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Richard E. Tahtinen and Hafrun Kristjansdottir

athletes transition into elite sports ( Rice et al., 2016 ). It is not until recently however that the prevalence of mental health disorders, such as anxiety and depression, have been systematically explored among athlete populations. Previous studies have reported highly variable prevalence rates in

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Johanna Belz, Jens Kleinert, Jeannine Ohlert, Thea Rau and Marc Allroggen

There is strong evidence that physical activity and exercise have a positive effect on mental health ( Paluska & Schwenk, 2000 ; Ströhle et al., 2007 ). One might assume, therefore, that competitive athletes are less susceptible to mental disorders such as depression. A recent meta-analysis and a

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A.P. (Karin) de Bruin and Raôul R.D. Oudejans

Recent studies have shown that a contextual body image approach seems to be a promising framework for a better understanding of athletes’ disordered eating ( Anderson, Reilly, Gorrell, & Anderson, 2016 ; De Bruin, Oudejans, Bakker, & Woertman, 2011 ; Kong & Harris, 2015 ; Krentz & Warschburger

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Shelby J. Martin and Timothy Anderson

Athletes represent a high-risk population for eating pathology (EP) and eating disorders. Indeed, compared to the 0.9–3.5% prevalence rate of eating disorders in the general population ( Americal Psychological Association [APA], 2013 ), the prevalence of DSM-diagnosed eating disorders in athletes

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International Olympic Committee Expert Group on Dietary Supplements in Athletes

widespread among elite athletes, as it is in the general population. Users cite many different reasons for consuming dietary supplements, though these reasons are often based on unfounded beliefs rather than on any clear understanding of the issues at stake, and may reflect encouragement from individuals who

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Carol R. Glass, Claire A. Spears, Rokas Perskaudas and Keith A. Kaufman

Traditional mental training approaches for athletes typically involve somatic and cognitive techniques such as imagery, relaxation, and changing negative self-talk into more positive cognitions, with the goal of changing or controlling internal states in order to optimize athletic performance

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Byron L. Zamboanga, Nathan T. Kearns, Janine V. Olthuis, Heidemarie Blumenthal and Renee M. Cloutier

, 2016 ). In addition, emerging adults who attend college drink more than their non-college attending peers ( Carter, Brandon, & Goldman, 2010 ) and are at risk for experiencing negative drinking consequences ( Merrill & Carey, 2016 ). College student-athletes in particular drink more and experience more

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Kelly Pritchett, Robert C. Pritchett, Lauren Stark, Elizabeth Broad and Melissa LaCroix

associated with increased incidence of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, multiple sclerosis, cancer, and decreased bone density ( Berridge, 2015 ; Holick, 2004 , 2007 ; Wong et al., 2015 ). Recent studies have estimated that 33–94% of athletes are vitamin D deficient ( Constantini, Arieli, Chodick

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Adamasco Cupisti, Claudia D’Alessandro, Silvia Castrogiovanni, Alice Barale and Ester Morelli

This study aims to investigate dietary composition and nutrition knowledge of 60 athlete and 59 non-athlete adolescent females (age, 14-18 years), using a 3-day food recall and a questionnaire on nutrition. The reported daily energy intake was similar in athletes and non-athletes, but less than the recommended and the estimated requirements. In the athletes, the energy supply from breakfast was higher than in the non-athletes (18.5 ± 6.6 vs. 15.0 ± 8.2%, p < .005). Energy intake from carbohydrates was higher (53.6 ± 6.2 vs. 49.8 ± 63%, p < .05) and that from lipids was lower (30.4 ± 5.5 vs. 34.2 ± 5.2%, p < .001) in athletes than in non-athletes. Athletes also showed higher fiber (20.0 ± 5.8 vs. 14.1 ± 4.3 g/day, p < .001). iron (10.6±5.1 vs. 7.5 ± 2.1 mg/day,/7 < .001) and vitamin A (804 ± 500 vs, 612 ± 456 μg/day, p < .05) reported intake than non-athletes. Calcium, iron, and zinc intake were less than 100% RDA in both groups. Athletes gave a slightly higher rate of correct answers on the nutrition knowledge questionnaire (77.6 vs. 71.6%,p < .01) than non-athletes. In conclusion, the overall recalled dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of the studied adolescent females show some misconceptions and nutrient deficiencies, but the results in athletes are quite better man in non-athletes, suggesting a favorable role of sport practice on dietary habits and nutrition knowledge.

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Laura D. DiPasquale and Trent A. Petrie

Eating disorder prevalence rates among athletes vary greatly because of the different ways in which researchers have measured and classified them, and the extent to which they are higher than those found among nonathletes remains unresolved. The present study examined prevalence of eating disorders, body image issues, and weight control behaviors using a valid diagnostic measure. Participants included 146 male and 156 female NCAA Division I student-athletes and a matched sample of 170 male and 353 female collegiate nonathletes. Overall, eating disorder prevalence rates and use of pathogenic weight control behaviors were lower among nonathletes than athletes. Rates for athletes in the current study were lower than previous studies. These findings are likely due to the lack of anonymity the athletes had when completing questionnaires, as data were collected through athletes’ preseason physicals, whereas nonathletes completed questionnaires anonymously over the Internet. Recommendations for athletic departments’ screening for eating disorders are made.