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James V. Mastro, Allen W. Burton, Marjorie Rosendahl, and Claudine Sherrill

Hierarchies of preference by elite athletes with impairments toward other athletes with impairments were examined by administering the Athletes With Impairments Attitude Survey (AWIAS) to 138 members of the United States Disabled Sports Team as they were traveling to the 1992 Paralympic Games. The AWIAS uses 12 statements concerning social and sport relationships to measure social distance from a particular impairment group. Five groups of athletes participated—athletes with amputations, cerebral palsy, dwarfism or les autres, paraplegia or quadriplegia, and visual impairment—with each participant filling out a separate survey for the four impairment groups other than his or her own. For all groups combined, the participants’ responses toward other impairment groups, ordered from most to least favorable attitudes, were amputations, les autres, para/quadriplegia, visual impairment, and cerebral palsy. The preference hierarchies for individual groups were very similar to this overall pattern.

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Jacqueline Martins Patatas, Jens De Rycke, Veerle De Bosscher, and Rafael Lima Kons

different sociocultural contexts involved and the specific needs of athletes with impairments—both within and outside of sports ( Patatas et al., 2019 ). Consequently, special attention should be given to issues that are unique to the Paralympic sporting context, considering primarily the impact of the

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Nima Dehghansai and Joseph Baker

Initiatives have been designed to attract novice athletes and to enable transfer for experienced athletes. However, the authors have very little knowledge of the effectiveness of these programs. To further improve our understanding, this study explored the demographic and sporting careers of 225 participants attending one of the 10 Paralympian Search events held between 2016 and 2018. The sample consisted of participants with a wide range of impairments and sport experiential backgrounds. The majority of the participants reported having some experience in sports, suggesting that either the promotions reached athletes involved in sports already or the advertising appealed especially to this cohort. Athletes with impairments acquired at various stages of their lives (congenital, before adolescence, adolescence, early adulthood, and adulthood) displayed differences in their sporting trajectories, suggesting considerations for current developmental models. Furthermore, it should be considered to vary the testing locations of future events to increase the reach to rural areas and implement new methods to attract novice participants.

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Viola C. Altmann, Jacques Van Limbeek, Anne L. Hart, and Yves C. Vanlandewijck

A representative sample (N = 302) of the wheelchair rugby population responded to a survey about the classification system based on prioritized items by International Wheelchair Rugby Federation members. Respondents stated, "The classification system is accurate but needs adjustments" (56%), "Any athlete with tetraequivalent impairment should be allowed to compete" (72%), "Athletes with cerebral palsy and other coordination impairments should be classified with a system different than the current one" (75%), and "The maximal value for trunk should be increased from 1.0 to 1.5" (67%). A minority stated, "Wheelchair rugby should only be open to spinal cord injury and other neurological conditions" (36%) and "There should be a 4.0 class" (33%). Results strongly indicated that athletes and stakeholders want adjustments to the classification system in two areas: a focus on evaluation of athletes with impairments other than loss of muscle power caused by spinal cord injury and changes in classification of trunk impairment.

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Nima Dehghansai, Veronica Allan, Ross A. Pinder, and Joe Baker

from the variations among PS athletes’ development ( Allan et al., 2018 ). For example, findings from recent studies suggest athletes with impairments acquired early in their lives (i.e., congenital or acquired during preadolescence) have different sporting trajectories to athletes with impairments

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Anna Bjerkefors, Johanna S. Rosén, Olga Tarassova, and Anton Arndt

different classification groups depending on the sport-specific activity limitation caused by their physical impairment. Athletes with impaired muscle power, impaired passive range of motion (RM), and limb deficiency that affects the lower limbs and trunk are eligible to compete in para-kayak ( www

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Johanna S. Rosén, Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey, Keith Tolfrey, Anton Arndt, and Anna Bjerkefors

difficulties in scoring these movements because the athletes can use different compensation strategies to perform the movement. Athletes with impairment affecting the trunk can compensate during the trunk tests by using a unique muscle activation pattern and new muscle synergies such as using upper trunk

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Nima Dehghansai, Daniel Spedale, Melissa J. Wilson, and Joseph Baker

on sport readiness for stage progression in contrast to other models that use the biological age/maturity level of athletes as markers of progression. As athletes with impairments may be impacted by specific biopsychosocial barriers that are not apparent in AB sport ( Baker & Horton, 2004

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Barnaby Wren, Christopher R.D. Wagstaff, and Alessandro Quartiroli

, M.H. ( 1995 ). The evolving professional self: Stages and themes in therapist and counselor development . John Wiley & Sons . Smith , B. , Bundon , A. , & Best , M. ( 2016 ). Disability sport and activist identities: A qualitative study of narratives of activism among elite athleteswith

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Camilla H. Carlsen, David McGhie, Julia K. Baumgart, and Øyvind Sandbakk

During Para cross-country (XC) sit-skiing, athletes with impairments of the lower extremities and/or trunk propel themselves with the upper-body double poling technique using 2 poles, while sitting in a sledge mounted on 2 skis. 1 , 2 The race courses consist of undulating terrain changing between