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Lucas Pereira, Ciro Winckler, Cesar C. Cal Abad, Ronaldo Kobal, Katia Kitamura, Amaury Veríssimo, Fabio Y. Nakamura, and Irineu Loturco

This study compared the physical performance of Paralympic sprinters with visual impairments (PSVI) and their guides in jump and sprint tests. Ten PSVI and guides executed squat jumps (SJ), countermovement jumps (CMJ), horizontal quintuple right/left-leg jumps (QR/QL), decuple jumps (DEC), and 50-m-sprint tests. The guides were superior to the PSVI in SJ (35.9 ± 6.3 vs 45.6 ± 3.2 cm), CMJ (38.5 ± 6.2 vs 46.7 ± 4.0 cm), QR (9.2 ± 1.9 vs 12.7 ± 1.0 m), QL (9.4 ± 1.9 vs 13.1 ± 0.8 m), DEC (21.0 ± 3.3 vs. 27.2 ± 1.7 m), and 50-m sprints (8.4 ± 0.4 vs 7.6 ± 0.5 m/s). The average differences between the PSVI and guides in the sprint tests was 10%, range 1–24%. Therefore, substantial differences in sprinting speed (in favor of the guides) between the peers were observed. Coaches should develop strategies to train the guides to improve their muscle-power performance.

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J.P. Barfield, Stephanie Williams, Madison R. Currie, and Xiuyan Guo

The purpose of this study was to initiate the development of an evidence-based sport classification system for powerchair football, a sport that serves athletes with physical impairments. Sport classification is designed to increase participation by minimizing the impact of impairment on competition outcome, and powerchair football lacks an evidence-based system of classification which is required of Paralympic sports. A number of approaches were used to build the theoretical model of sport performance (Step 2 of the International Paralympic Committee model). Key sport activities were identified through surveys of stakeholders and underlying determinants of those key activities were identified through game and database analyses. Current findings support drive control, ball control, communication, and adjustment to the ball as key activities in powerchair football with joint-specific strength and range of motion, sensory, and neurological variables identified as underlying determinants.

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Ben T. Stephenson, Sven P. Hoekstra, Keith Tolfrey, and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

Paralympic athletes are a population group with unique challenges in autonomic or behavioral thermoregulatory function, relative to able-bodied (AB) athletes. While this has been acknowledged by researchers, 1 there is still a dearth of research in elite athletes with physical impairments. The

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Rafael Lima Kons, Marina Saldanha da Silva Athayde, Lara Antunes, Jaqueline Santos Silva Lopes, and Daniele Detanico

focused on injuries in athletes with disabilities have also increased, 13 – 19 showing a higher prevalence of injuries in Paralympic athletes with physical impairment. 13 – 17 For example, Fagher et al 16 verified a higher prevalence of injuries in athletes with visual impairment aged 18–30 years (64

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Shana E. Harrington, Sean McQueeney, and Marcus Fearing

the literature for Para swimmers and able-bodied swimmers. One assumption that may be made is that athletes with physical impairments do not train in similar durations to able-bodied counterparts, but our data reveal that this is not always the case. Regarding Para cycling and Para athletics, we were

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Johanna S. Rosén, Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey, Keith Tolfrey, Anton Arndt, and Anna Bjerkefors

Para Va'a is a canoeing sport performed in a Polynesian outrigger canoe, propelled by a single-blade paddle on flat or open water, by athletes with physical impairments. Para Va'a makes its debut as a Paralympic sport at the Tokyo 2020 Paralympic Games after the International Paralympic Committee

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Valeria Rosso, Laura Gastaldi, Walter Rapp, Stefan Lindinger, Yves Vanlandewijck, Sami Äyrämö, and Vesa Linnamo

. One possibility would be to invite athletes with physical impairment (spinal cord injury and amputation) from other but similar sports to increase the sample. Using athletes’ own sit-ski during the test allows assessing their movement in competitions; however, perturbations responses are influenced by

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Yoko Kanemasu

the players, their impairment being a sensory one, may approximate the able-bodied physical ideals of the rugby discourse. In this regard, celebration of their success may contribute to further marginalization of athletes with physical impairments. Indeed, a wheelchair user asked the team at the

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Rosanna Gilderthorp, Jan Burns, and Fergal Jones

relevant to sport performance and to ensure that the athlete competes equitably with other athletes” (Article 2.1.1, International Paralympic Committee Classification Code, 2007 ). For example, within swimming, there are ten classes for athletes with physical impairments and three for swimmers who are