Motivation psychologists have long asserted that “all goals are not created equal” ( Ryan, Sheldon, Kasser, & Deci, 1996 ), highlighting how the reason(s) for goal pursuit impact goal progress, attainment, and well-being. Building upon this framework, we propose that all athletic career
Anne Holding, Jo-Annie Fortin, Joëlle Carpentier, Nora Hope, and Richard Koestner
Sine Agergaard and Tatiana V. Ryba
With rising globalization and professionalization within sports, athletes are increasingly migrating across national borders to take up work, and their athletic and nonathletic development is thereby shaped and lived in different countries. Through the analysis of interviews with female professional transnational athletes, this article contextualizes and discusses arguments for developing an interdisciplinary framework to account for lived experiences of the close intertwining between transnational migration and career development in professional sports. By combining our psychological and sociological perspectives, we identify three normative career transitions for transnational athletes. First of all, transnational recruitment that draws on social networks as well as individual agency. Secondly, establishment as a transnational athlete that is connected to cultural and psychological adaptation as well as development of transnational belonging, and thirdly, professional athletic career termination that for transnational athletes is connected to a (re)constitution of one’s transnational network and sense of belonging.
Noora J. Ronkainen, Tatiana V. Ryba, and Jacquelyn Allen-Collinson
( Jarvis, 2007 ). In our analysis, we focus on the embodied process of restoring harmony of the lifeworld after athletic retirement, through a case study with “Pilvi,” a Finnish preelite athlete whose promising athletic career terminated in late adolescence. Through an existential-phenomenological approach
Pia-Maria Wippert and Jens Wippert
As career termination is an incisive event in life, it is therefore important to understand the effects of different types of retirement on an athlete’s biography. Thus, the present longitudinal study is concerned with the effects of career termination of professional national team-athletes on the development of psychopathological symptoms, locus of control, self-concept, and mood, with special consideration of the mediator variable “subjective control of event-onset.” Data were collected from 42 professional athletes (17 of whom experienced an unexpected dismissal and 4 voluntarily retired) using standardized questionnaires (SCL-90-R, ASTS, FKK) 10 days before event entrance (baseline-test), 10 days after, 3 weeks after, and 5.5 months after onset of career termination. Although the baseline data did not reveal personality differences between the groups, dismissed athletes showed significantly stronger psychological distress after event onset. They displayed a stronger initial reaction, a more severe crisis, and longer transition periods than the control group. Results are discussed in connection with the combination of social evaluative threat and forced failure during event onset and their strong effects on distress after career termination.
Pia-Maria Wippert and Jens Wippert
Undesired career termination represents a critical life event for professional athletes. This study examined traumatic stress resulting from (a) a career-ending event and (b) the athlete’s separation from his or her social support network. Data were collected from 40 professional athletes who were members of the German National Ski Team, using standardized (Impact of Event Scale; Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale) and partially standardized (psychosomatic stress reaction) questionnaires. Correlations between the impact of termination and traumatic stress symptoms were observed over a period of 8 months. Athletes who experienced supportive termination (involving discussion with coaches) endorsed fewer symptoms than those who experienced socially disintegrative termination (lacking support of coaches). Nearly 20% of participants endorsed clinically relevant levels of traumatic stress at 3 and 8 months posttermination.
Alexander David Blackett, Adam B. Evans, and David Piggott
, 2016 ). Consequently, coaches themselves have reported that the development processes for learning coaching skills and knowledge is somehow embedded in their former experiences as athletes ( Cushion, Armour, & Jones, 2003 ; Mallett, Rynne, & Billett, 2016 ). Thus, former competitive-athletic careers
Gretchen Kerr, Erin Willson, and Ashley Stirling
a result of emotionally abusive coaching practices. The athletes reported negative effects over an extended period of time, from their competitive careers throughout the retirement transition and into life post-transition. During their athletic careers, the athletes recalled that emotionally abusive
Hyunjae Jeon, Melanie L. McGrath, Neal Grandgenett, and Adam B. Rosen
of activities of daily living, reduction in physical activity, and early cessation of athletic careers which highlights the importance of determining the contributing factors associated with PT. 5 Patellar tendinopathy is commonly characterized by persistent anterior knee pain concentrated on the
Roy David Samuel and Gershon Tenenbaum
This study examined decision-making processes in response to athletic career change-events (e.g., injury, field position change). Athletes’ (N = 338) initial strategic decisions whether to address or ignore a change-event, and their subsequent decisions whether to make the required change were measured using the Change-Event Inventory (Samuel & Tenenbaum, 2011b). Athletes reported a high tendency of making a strategic decision to consult with others, which could be predicted from the event’s perceived significance and availability of professional support. Athletes also reported a high tendency of making a subsequent decision to change, which could be predicted from the helpfulness of support, motivation for change, and certain coping strategies. The two types of decisions were related. Perceived outcome of the change process and athletes’ motivation could also be accurately predicted. In conclusion, to effectively cope with change-events athletes need to feel involved, be in control, and make independent decisions that reflect their genuine needs and wishes.
M. Ann Hall and Bruce Kidd
Eva Dawes Spinks (1912–2009) was an outstanding Canadian high jumper in the 1930s. The present paper traces her early life, successful athletic career, and her decision in 1935 to join a group of athletes on a goodwill tour of the Soviet Union organized by the Workers’ Sports Association of Canada. Upon her return, Dawes was suspended by the Women’s Amateur Athletic Union of Canada. She retired from competition and became involved in the Canadian campaign to boycott the 1936 Berlin Olympics. Much later, Dawes adamantly denied any political involvement. The purpose of this paper is to examine and possibly explain the incongruity between the historical evidence and Dawes’s later denials. More broadly, it is a discussion about the relationship between history and individual memory.