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James P. Corcoran, Lehigh University and Deborah L. Feltz

A formative evaluation was conducted of the Chemical Health Education and Coaching (CHEC) program sponsored by the Youth Sports Institute at Michigan State University. The degree to which high school athletic coaches (a) became knowledgeable about chemical health and (b) were confident in their ability to apply that knowledge to their team were the two primary concerns of this study. Two hundred eighteen high school athletic coaches comprised the experimental and control groups to whom identical pretest and posttest instruments were administered. The CHEC program consisted of three 1-hr sessions. The subjects were asked to respond to one questionnaire that assessed both their knowledge and confidence in that knowledge and their ability to use it with their athletes. The results indicated that the coaches who were exposed to CHEC were more knowledgeable and more confident than control coaches.

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Joanne MacLean and Dorothy Zakrajsek

Evaluating coaching performance based on the use of job-specific assessment criteria has been particularly problematic for college athletic departments. The purpose of this study was to assess the importance attached to six dimensions of criteria rated by administrators (n = 87) and coaches (n = 532) in the Canadian Interuniversity Athletic Union. The six dimensions were team products, personal products, direct task behaviors, indirect task behaviors, administrative maintenance behaviors, and public relation behaviors. The results of Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MÁNOVA) and repeated measures ANOVA showed that, in general, administrators and coaches held similar beliefs about the criteria important for coaching evaluation, but they had some differences in the order of importance of the dimensions. Both groups rated direct task behaviors—that is, the specific abilities or skills used directly in the day-today practice of coaching—as the most important dimension of grouped evaluation criteria.

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George H. Sage

A field study of high school teacher/coaches was undertaken, guided by the following general questions: What is it like being a high school teacher/coach? What are the main occupational contingencies for high school teacher/coaches? How do teacher/coaches think about themselves and their situations? The larger field study that provided the data base for this paper was conducted over a 5-month period in 1985 during which I observed teacher/coaches in six high schools. The data were drawn from naturally occurring observations and conversations with teacher/coaches, noncoaching teachers, and school administrators. Formal interviews were also conducted with 50 teacher/coaches. Data described in this paper are qualitative and focus on teacher/coaches’ feelings and attitudes about their profession and the meanings about the multiple role demands they are confronted with. The observations and interviews demonstrate quite dramatically the complexity and pervasiveness of role overload and interrole conflict in this occupation and the role strain that results. Coping and resolution strategies used by teacher/coaches are discussed.

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Ben-El Berkovich, Aliza H. Stark, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet and Tali Sinai

Fasting, skipping meals, and dehydration are common methods of rapid weight loss used prior to competition in weight category sports. This study examines coaches’ attitudes, perceptions, and practices regarding rapid weight loss among judo and taekwondo athletes. A convenience sample of experienced coaches and trainers (n = 68) completed structured questionnaires. Participants in this study were 33.8 ± 9.3 years old; 57 were males and 11 were females; and 59% were certified coaches, with 71% reporting over 20 years of involvement in sports and 68% having more than 10 years of teaching experience. The majority (90%) reported that they usually supervised athletes through the weight loss process. Interventions for weight loss began at 12.7 ± 1.9 years of age, with a recommended precompetition weight loss duration of 16.2 ± 8.2 days and an average reduction of 1.5 ± 0.7 kg. The majority of the responders (92%) recommended that their athletes practice gradual weight loss methods using a combination of dehydration or increased physical activity (80.3%), sweat suits (50.8%), restricted fluid intake (39.3%), training in heated rooms (27%), and sauna (26.2%). Recommendations of spitting (27.8%) or using laxatives, diuretics, diet pills, or vomiting (21.3%) were also reported. Coaches and trainers often encouraged athletes to cut weight before competition. The methods recommended are potentially harmful with severe health risks, including compromised nutritional status and diminished athletic performance. This is of particular concern in young athletes who are still growing and developing physically. Enhancing knowledge and awareness for coaches, athletes, and parents regarding potential dangers, along with improved nutrition education, is critical for reducing the magnitude and misuse of rapid weight loss methods.

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Alexander David Blackett, Adam B. Evans and David Piggott

did not always adequately prepare them for a post-athletic coaching career, yet it did provided them with an “advantage” ( Watts & Cushion, 2017 , p. 77). One such advantage is that competitive-athletic careers provide high-performance coaches with the ability to accumulate species of capital

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Alison J. Doherty

This study examined the effect of various leader characteristics on the transformational/transactional leader behavior (Bass, 1985) and impact of interuniversity athletic administrators (n = 32), as rated by their coaches (n = 114). Gender, age, education, administrative experience, and athletic/coaching experience were examined as possible antecedents to leader behavior (Chelladurai, 1980,1993). These characteristics reflect life experiences (Avolio & Gibbons, 1988) and common indicators of occupational development of athletic administrators (e.g., Barr, 1995; Quarterman, 1992; Williams & Miller, 1983). Leader behavior was measured by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (Bass & Avolio, 1991b). Differences in transformational/transactional leader behavior were observed for the leader characteristics of gender and age, where female and younger athletic administrators were found to exhibit transformational leader behavior more often, and transactional leader behavior less often, than their male and older counterparts, respectively. Gender and age also were associated with the coaches' perception of leader effectiveness and their frequency of extra effort.

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John T. Wolohan and Sharon Mathes

With the increased attention on the issue of sexual harassment in our society, coaches and athletic administrators need to take a more proactive role in eliminating sexual harassment in the locker room. Although in sport, sexual harassment lawsuits have been rare, the number of reported cases of sexual harassment and misconduct among athletic coaches are on the rise. This article examines what constitutes sexual harassment in sport and what behavior of coaches may now be the bases of a lawsuit. The scope of Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, and its relevance to charges of sexual harassment in educational institutions will also be discussed. Next, the article reviews the evolution of sexual harassment case law as demonstrated by two cases. Finally, guidelines for avoiding sexual harassment will be reviewed.

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Thomas M. Caccese and Cathleen K. Mayerberg

A study was undertaken to assess the level of perceived burnout in college athletic coaches, and to determine whether male coaches differed from female coaches in level of burnout. Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory, a self-report rating scale that provides three subscores: Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Personal Accomplishment. Subjects were NCAA and AIAW Division I college head coaches (138 male and 93 female coaches). The sexes differed on both the emotional exhaustion and the personal accomplishment subscales, in terms of both frequency of response and intensity of response. Female coaches reported significantly higher levels of emotional exhaustion and significantly lower levels of personal accomplishment than male coaches. The largest gender difference on the frequency dimension was for the item, “ I feel frustrated by my job.” For the intensity dimension, the largest difference was for the item “I feel burned out from my work.” Possible explanations for the gender differences are presented.

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Evie Oregon, Lauren McCoy, Lacee’ Carmon-Johnson and Angel Brown-Reveles

Each year, the college football season ends with hiring and firing moves. These transitions raise questions about the million-dollar salaries prevalent in college sports. Current events like this tend to dominate classroom conversations. Navigating these issues and their relation to class content can be challenging. Although the amount of money spent on coaches is not surprising, any discussion to provide new strategies may not be legally viable. For example, when students propose ideas about limiting coaching salaries, they may not realize the legal implication of that action. This case study uses the legal case-study model to address questions related to intercollegiate athletic coaching salaries and the possibility of a salary cap. Providing legal application in other courses will address these questions for both students and for faculty members who might not have the legal background to answer these questions.

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Jennifer L. VanSickle, Heidi Hancher-Rauch and Terry G. Elliott

This study compared intercollegiate athletic coaches’ self-perceptions to the perceptions of their players concerning a coach’s emotional intelligence. Sixteen coaches and 223 players from two Division I softball conferences completed the Emotional Competence Inventory-2 (Boyaztis, Goleman, & Hay/McBer, 2001). Mean analysis revealed that coaches rated themselves higher on 14 of the 18 emotional intelligence competencies and on all four emotional intelligence clusters. Coaches rated themselves highest in Social Awareness (Error! Bookmark not defined.x̅ = 4.27/5) while their athletes rated them highest in Self-Awareness (Error! Bookmark not defined.x̅ = 3.63/5). Meanwhile, athletes gave coaches their lowest rating in Relationship Management (Error! Bookmark not defined.x̅ = 3.44/5). Coaches need to be aware that the self-perceptions of their own behavior differ from the perceptions of their athletes. Since it is well known that the behavior of the coach affects the performance of the athlete, techniques to train coaches to recognize and overcome this difference could be beneficial and are provided.