The relative age effect (RAE) has become a well-studied consequence of organizations utilizing a cutoff date to establish age cohorts. Within this case study, students will explore and learn how to perform various statistical analyses (i.e., chi-square, effect sizes, standardized residuals) to determine whether the RAE exists among those who competed in the 2011 and 2012 Little League World Series (LLWS). Students will learn about the mission and history of Little League Baseball (LLB) and discuss potential changes and/or strategies that could be used by the organization to make the LLWS more inclusive. Furthermore, students can use the knowledge gained from this case study to critically analyze the current status of various other sport organizations to help develop potential strategies to ensure fairness and equality for all participating athletes.
Jess C. Dixon, Laura Chittle and Sean Horton
Siduri J. Haslerig
This article foregrounds the experiences of graduate(d) student athletes, defined as college athletes who earn a bachelor’s degree before exhausting their athletic eligibility and take postbaccalaureate or graduate coursework. Findings from semistructured phone interviews with 11 graduate(d) student athletes in Division I football suggest participants are able to marshal their academic credentials to negotiate stereotypes. Examining how simultaneously being a graduate(d) student and a football player impacted participants’ vulnerability to stereotyping, I find that despite the ability to disrupt stereotypes, obstacles both systemic and individual may inhibit this effect. In particular, I explore the themes: stereotyping, disrupting/disproving stereotyping, trailblazer/role model, and invisibility. I also attend to the factors contributing to this subpopulation of college athletes’ continued invisibility and offer implications and suggestions for practice.
Jeffrey J. Milroy, Stephen Hebard, Emily Kroshus and David L. Wyrick
using SPSS version 24 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Results Sample Characteristics More than half of the participants were male, represented all years of athletic eligibility, and their ages ranged from 18 to 22 years ( M = 19.16, SD = 0.49). Table 1 provides additional details related to sample
Zachary C. Merz, Joanne E. Perry and Michael J. Ross
conversations culminated with the client’s decision to forego his final year of athletic eligibility in favor of graduation and the forging of new vocational opportunities. Specific information was left out within subsequent sections to protect the client’s confidentiality. Consulting Philosophy Treatment, as
Vicki D. Schull and Lisa A. Kihl
to six months) completed their athletic eligibility; 2) participated in team sports; and 3) who had two or more years of intercollegiate playing experience. These criteria were used because it provided rich information cases ( Patton, 2002 ), that is, individuals who had a range of previous