Individuals with acquired physical disabilities report lower levels of athletic identity. The objective of this study was to further explore why athletic identity may be lost or (re)developed after acquiring a physical disability. Seven women and four men (range = 28–60 years) participated in approximately 1-hour-long semi-structured interviews; data were subjected to a narrative analysis. The structural analysis revealed three narrative types. The nonathlete narrative described physical changes in the body as reasons for diminished athletic identity. The athlete as a future self primarily focused on present sport behavior and performance goals such that behavior changes diminished athletic identity. The present self as athlete narrative type focused on the aspects of their present sport involvement, such as feedback from other athletes and skill development, which supported their athletic identity. Implications of these narrative types with respect to sport promotion among people with acquired physical disabilities are discussed.
Marie-Josée Perrier, Shaelyn M. Strachan, Brett Smith and Amy E. Latimer-Cheung
James L. W. Houle and Annette S. Kluck
This study explored the extent to which athletic identity, belief of financial sustainability through participation at the professional level, scholarship status, and career decision-making self-efficacy predicted career maturity in college athletes. In addition, whether the relationship between athletic identity and career maturity differed depending upon scholarship status, belief of sustaining oneself financially as a professional athlete, and career decision-making self-efficacy was explored. Participants were 221 student-athletes from a large southeastern university. Participants provided demographic information and completed the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale, Career Decision Self-Efficacy Scale—Short Form, and Career Decision Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that athletic identity was inversely related to career maturity. In addition, career decision-making self-efficacy was related to career maturity, with high career decision-making self-efficacy associated with higher career maturity. Future research is needed to further explore psychological variables that may explain the relationship between athletic identity and career maturity.
Fleur E.C.A. van Rens, Rebecca A. Ashley and Andrea R. Steele
), student-athletes will likely develop both academic and athletic identities that align with their roles in these domains. However, research on student-athletes’ identities has almost exclusively focused on their athletic identity ( Yukhymenko–Lescroart, 2014 ). Athletic identity reflects the degree to
Nikolaus A. Dean
personal narratives with Erving Goffman’s ( 1959 ) presentation of self theory. Through this application, I attempt to analyze and make sense of the (re)negotiation of my athletic identity due to the formidable impacts of sustaining a sport-related concussion (SRC). As Brewer, Van Raalte, and Linder ( 1993
Geraldine M. Murphy, Albert J. Petitpas and Britton W. Brewer
A study was conducted with 124 intercollegiate student-athletes at an NCAA Division I institution to examine the relationship between self-identity variables (i.e., identity foreclosure and athletic identity) and career maturity. Results indicated that both identity foreclosure and athletic identity were inversely related to career maturity. Significant effects of gender, playing status (varsity vs. nonvarsity), and sport (revenue producing vs. nonrevenue producing) on career maturity were observed. The findings suggest that failure to explore alternative roles and identifying strongly and exclusively with the athlete role are associated with delayed career development in intercollegiate student athletes, and that male varsity student-athletes in revenue-producing sports may be especially at risk for impaired acquisition of career decision-making skills. The results underscore the importance of understanding athletic identity issues and exercising caution in challenging sport-related occupational aspirations in presenting career development interventions to student-athletes.
Jeffrey J. Martin, Carol Adams-Mushett and Kari L. Smith
Measures of athletic identity and sport orientation, developed from self-schema theory, social role theory, and achievement motivation theory, were used to examine international adolescent swimmers with disabilities. The multidimensional Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (Brewer, Van Raalte, & Linder, 1993) was used to assess self-identity, social identity, exclusivity, and negative affectivity. The Sport Orientation Questionnaire (Gill & Deeter, 1988) measured competitiveness, win orientation, and goal orientation. Swimmers reported (a) a strong self-identity, (b) a moderate to strong social identity, (c) negative affectivity with lower levels of exclusivity, (d) strong competitiveness and goal orientation, and (e) moderate win orientation. Self-identity was correlated with competitiveness, suggesting that swimmers did not simply report an identification with an athletic role; they also reported a strong desire to attain competitive goals. Additionally, exclusivity was associated with negative affectivity, indicating that athletes without diversified self-schemas may be at risk for emotional problems when unable to compete. In general, the results indicated that these swimmers possess a strong athletic identity and that sport is important to them.
Tomasz Tasiemski, Paul Kennedy, Brian P. Gardner and Rachel A. Blaikley
The aims of this study were to investigate “athletic identity” in people with spinal cord injury (SCI), using the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS), to evaluate the psychometric properties of the 7-item version, and to identify reasons for and barriers to sports participation in this population. People with SCI (N = 678), even those competing as athletes, reported lower levels of athletic identity than able-bodied adults and adolescents with physical disabilities. AIMS scores varied according to gender, athlete status, and hours of sports participation per week. No relationship was found between athletic identity and depression, anxiety, or life satisfaction. Exploratory factor analysis did not support the 3-factor structure of the AIMS with this population, although internal consistency was good.
Tomasz Tasiemski and Britton W. Brewer
This study examined interrelationships among athletic identity, sport participation, and psychological adjustment in a sample of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). Participants (N = 1,034) completed measures of athletic identity, life satisfaction, anxiety, depression, and demographic and sport participation variables. Current amount of weekly sport participation was positively related to athletic identity when statistically controlling for age, gender, and pre-SCI amount of weekly sport participation. Being able to practice one’s favorite sport after SCI was associated with higher levels of athletic identity and better psychological adjustment. Team sport participants reported experiencing better psychological adjustment than individual sport participants did. The findings suggest that social factors are important in the link between sport participation and psychological adjustment in people with SCI.
Jeffrey J. Martin, Robert C. Eklund and Carol Adams Mushett
Individuals who perceive themselves as “athletes” are thought to have self-schemas composed of, in part, an athletic identity (Brewer, Van Raalte, & Linder, 1993). The recent development of the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) has allowed sport psychology researchers to assess athletic identity. Research with adolescent athletes with disabilities has suggested that the AIMS is composed of 4 factors (Martin, Mushett, & Eklund, 1994). The purpose of the current study was to further examine the psychometric properties of the AIMS. Seventy-eight international swimmers (34 females, 44 males) with disabilities, ranging in age from 12 to 44 (M = 23.4 years), participated in the present study. Using structural equation modeling procedures, a confirmatory factor analysis determined that the data fit the 4-factor model specified in the Martin et al. (1994) study, thus providing support for the multidimensionality of the AIMS.
Suzanne A. Nasco and William M. Webb
The link between a strong identification with the athletic self-concept and well-being, commitment, and effort in athletes has been established in numerous research projects. However, current measures of athletic identity do not specifically acknowledge the public and private aspects of the athlete role and their differential influence on behavior. The goal of the present project was to create a short, psychometrically sound scale that measured these dimensions. Our scale (Public-Private Athletic Identity Scale; PPAIS) was validated using over 1,000 nonathletes, recreational athletes, current collegiate athletes, and retired athletes. We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis to establish the structure of the scale and examined validity by comparing and contrasting the PPAIS with other existing athletic identity measures. Regressions also were used to show that the PPAIS enhances prediction of behavioral measures over other identity scales.