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Anne Holding, Jo-Annie Fortin, Joëlle Carpentier, Nora Hope and Richard Koestner

’ retirement and maximize their “post-sport” well-being. The clinical implications for sport transition programs and clinicians working with retiring athletes are discussed. Athletic Retirement as Disengagement The last two decades of research have shown that when the ideal time-frame for goal attainment has

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Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Diarmuid Hurley and Montse C. Ruiz

This study documented the lived career-ending injury experiences among elite Irish rugby football union (IRFU) players. Three players took part in semistructured one-on-one interviews. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (Smith, 1996) revealed that the process of psychosocial injury rehabilitation and the subsequent transition process was for the most part a distressing one and evolved in a cyclical, yet stage-like (Heil, 1994), manner. The nature of the postinjury career transition appeared to be dependent on the interactional balance of participants’ psychosocial responses to injury, existing coping mechanisms, and other factors related to the injury and career transition process. Appropriate social support network, use of sport medicine and counseling professionals, as well as organizational officials are needed to best prepare elite rugby players for life outside of sport, and to ensure a healthy career transition (Taylor & Ogilvie, 1994) out of sport.

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Pia-Maria Wippert and Jens Wippert

As career termination is an incisive event in life, it is therefore important to understand the effects of different types of retirement on an athlete’s biography. Thus, the present longitudinal study is concerned with the effects of career termination of professional national team-athletes on the development of psychopathological symptoms, locus of control, self-concept, and mood, with special consideration of the mediator variable “subjective control of event-onset.” Data were collected from 42 professional athletes (17 of whom experienced an unexpected dismissal and 4 voluntarily retired) using standardized questionnaires (SCL-90-R, ASTS, FKK) 10 days before event entrance (baseline-test), 10 days after, 3 weeks after, and 5.5 months after onset of career termination. Although the baseline data did not reveal personality differences between the groups, dismissed athletes showed significantly stronger psychological distress after event onset. They displayed a stronger initial reaction, a more severe crisis, and longer transition periods than the control group. Results are discussed in connection with the combination of social evaluative threat and forced failure during event onset and their strong effects on distress after career termination.

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Bik C. Chow

The purpose of the research was to study the transitional experiences of elite female athletes who are going through the process of athletic retirement. Using a life history approach, six former and six current athletes in Hong Kong were interviewed. Semi-structured interviews were utilized based on the Schlossberg’s (1981, 1984) transition model. Data were analyzed using typology and constant comparison methods. Diversity and commonality in the experiences of women withdrawing from elite sports competition were found. The life history approach was effective in illustrating the ways in which Hong Kong female athletes feel and think about career end, with a transition from competition to retirement evident as part of career passing. Content analysis of interviews revealed several salient themes related to sports retirement. Key distinctions across projected and experienced retirement were associated with a woman’s being an immigrant athlete, entering early into sport, and pursuing an education. Athlete status also affected transition to retirement and lifestyle after an elite sports career.

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Fleur E.C.A. van Rens, Rebecca A. Ashley and Andrea R. Steele

, 2015 ). Research has shown that the fulfillment of dual careers facilitates athletes’ transitions out of sport on athletic retirement ( Grove, Lavallee, & Gordon, 1997 ; Küttel, Boyle, & Schmid, 2017 ; Park, Lavallee, & Tod, 2013 ). However, managing the concurrent demands from education and elite

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Fleur E.C.A. van Rens and Edson Filho

specialization sports such as gymnastics, former athletes particularly struggle with athletic retirement due to the loss of their athletic self-identity ( Gagné, Ryan, & Bargmann, 2003 ; Warriner & Lavallee, 2008 ). Similar to career transitions within sport, coping skills and personal resources are critical in

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Monna Arvinen-Barrow, Kelsey DeGrave, Stephen Pack and Brian Hemmings

transition. Of the different causes of athletic retirement, it is likely that transition due to involuntary reasons (e.g., sport injury) might present greater negative difficulties to the athletes, as it is likely that the athletes may not be psychosocially “ready” to retire (e.g.,  Roberts & Davis, 2018

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Sophie Knights, Emma Sherry, Mandy Ruddock-Hudson and Paul O’Halloran

retirement. When comparing an athletic retirement with other career retirement, two factors have been identified that appear to make the process different: (a) the uniqueness of an “athletic identity” and (b) the special circumstances of early “forced retirement” ( Webb, Nasco, Riley, & Headrick, 1998 ). As

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Shani Pitcho-Prelorentzos and Michal Mahat-Shamir

.1080/1750984X.2017.1317357 Smith , J.A. , Flowers , P. , & Larkin , M. ( 2009 ). Interpretative phenomenological analysis: Theory, method and research . London, UK : Sage . Stambulova , N. , Stephan , Y. , & Jäphag , U. ( 2007 ). Athletic retirement: A cross-national comparison of elite French

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Scott Douglas, William R. Falcão and Gordon A. Bloom

winner at the Paralympics after gaining national success and acclaim as a player and coach with his club team. Immediately after his athletic retirement, Coach Simon was recruited and hired as a Paralympic head coach, a title he has maintained for over 10 years. Coach White acquired her disability from