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Jairus J. Quesnele, Michelle A. Laframboise, Jessica J. Wong, Peter Kim and Greg D. Wells


To critically review the methodological quality and synthesize information from systematic reviews and high quality studies on the effects of beta alanine (BA) on exercise and athletic performance.


A search strategy was developed in accordance with the standards for the reporting of scientific literature via systematic reviews. Five databases were thoroughly searched from inception to November 2012. Inclusion criteria were English language, human studies, used BA to increase exercise or athletic performance, systematic reviews or randomized controlled trials and were published in a peer-reviewed journal. Included studies were systematically graded for their methodological quality by rotating pairs of reviewers and the results were qualitatively synthesized.


One systematic review and 19 randomized trials were included in this review. There is one systematic review with several methodological weaknesses that limit the confidence in its results. There are moderate to high quality studies that appear to support that BA may increase power output and working capacity, decrease the feeling of fatigue and exhaustion, and have of positive effect on body composition and carnosine content. The reporting of side effects from BA supplementation in the athletic population was generally under-reported.


There appears to be some evidence from this review that supplementation with BA may increase athletic performance. However, there is insufficient evidence examining the safety of BA supplementation and its side effects. It is therefore recommended to err on the side of caution in using BA as an ergogenic aid until there is sufficient evidence confirming its safety.

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Rebecca M. Hirschhorn, Cassidy Holland, Amy F. Hand and James M. Mensch

Key Points ▸ Physicians have more positive perceptions of athletic trainers’ skills than previous research has indicated. ▸ Organization and administration continues to be a perceived weakness among the athletic training domains. ▸ Experience working with an athletic trainer did not significantly

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Eddie Comeaux and Adam Martin

Women’s systematic exclusion from the realm of sport was documented as long ago as the 8th century BCE in Greece ( Wackwitz, 2003 ). Early efforts to preclude women from competing in athletic events led to widespread, long-term exclusion that has both formed and perpetuated traditional definitions

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Riana R. Pryor, Summer Runestad, Bethany A. Chong Gum, Nathan J. Fuller, Moon Kang and Jennifer J. Beck

Key Points ▸ Nearly two-thirds of California secondary schools do not hire a certified athletic trainer. ▸ Fewer California secondary schools hire an athletic trainer compared to the nationwide average. ▸ Many schools hired nonmedical personnel to provide sports medicine services to student

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Aquasia A. Shaw, Merry Moiseichik, Heather Blunt-Vinti and Sarah Stokowski

Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is not intentionally engaging in racial discrimination, the organization’s current policies and practices arguably perpetuate unequal racial outcomes ( Cooper, Nwadike, & Macaulay, 2017 ) and “reproduces the inequitable conditions of institutions and sociocultural

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Shannon David and Mary Larson

interpersonal skill used to deliver patient-centered care in physical medicine fields such as nursing, physical therapy, and athletic training. 2 , 8 , 9 Expression of empathy by clinicians facilitates patients’ sharing of symptoms and concerns, which in turn helps health care professionals collect more

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Stephanie M. Mazerolle, Christianne M. Eason and Ashley Goodman

Professionals in several health care fields, including athletic training, have reported work overload, burnout, and work-life conflict. 1 – 3 These professional issues have been attributed to job demands, expectations associated with the role of the health care provider in sport organizations, and

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Fleur E.C.A. van Rens, Rebecca A. Ashley and Andrea R. Steele

, 2015 ). Research has shown that the fulfillment of dual careers facilitates athletes’ transitions out of sport on athletic retirement ( Grove, Lavallee, & Gordon, 1997 ; Küttel, Boyle, & Schmid, 2017 ; Park, Lavallee, & Tod, 2013 ). However, managing the concurrent demands from education and elite

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Daniel P. Strukel

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome has only recently begun to receive attention in the field of athletic training. Previously, there was a preconceived notion that athletes were beyond contracting this disease. However, with the announcement of Earvin “Magic” Johnson's contraction of HIV, the virus that leads to AIDS, this concept has fallen by the wayside. Now, many clinicians recognize that the patients they treat may be carrying this virus and thus want to become more knowledgeable about the disease. This article addresses questions concerning transmission of AIDS, prevention of HIV transmission, and precautions that must be undertaken to protect both the athlete and the athletic trainer from this disease. Knowledge about this disease and use of appropriate precautions will substantially decrease the risk of HIV transmission in athletics.

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Cailee E. Welch Bacon, Gary W. Cohen, Melissa C. Kay, Dayna K. Tierney and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

care physician, concussion specialist) and school-affiliated health care personnel (e.g., athletic trainer, school nurse) should evaluate, monitor, and track symptoms, while school personnel should monitor and track academic and emotional changes of the concussed student-athlete. In the home