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Damien Clement and Monna Arvinen-Barrow

model presumes that these professionals/individuals will be part of the primary rehabilitation team or the secondary rehabilitation team, depending on their importance to the athlete in the injury rehabilitation process. The model proposes that the primary team consist of medical professionals (eg, athletic

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Jairus J. Quesnele, Michelle A. Laframboise, Jessica J. Wong, Peter Kim, and Greg D. Wells


To critically review the methodological quality and synthesize information from systematic reviews and high quality studies on the effects of beta alanine (BA) on exercise and athletic performance.


A search strategy was developed in accordance with the standards for the reporting of scientific literature via systematic reviews. Five databases were thoroughly searched from inception to November 2012. Inclusion criteria were English language, human studies, used BA to increase exercise or athletic performance, systematic reviews or randomized controlled trials and were published in a peer-reviewed journal. Included studies were systematically graded for their methodological quality by rotating pairs of reviewers and the results were qualitatively synthesized.


One systematic review and 19 randomized trials were included in this review. There is one systematic review with several methodological weaknesses that limit the confidence in its results. There are moderate to high quality studies that appear to support that BA may increase power output and working capacity, decrease the feeling of fatigue and exhaustion, and have of positive effect on body composition and carnosine content. The reporting of side effects from BA supplementation in the athletic population was generally under-reported.


There appears to be some evidence from this review that supplementation with BA may increase athletic performance. However, there is insufficient evidence examining the safety of BA supplementation and its side effects. It is therefore recommended to err on the side of caution in using BA as an ergogenic aid until there is sufficient evidence confirming its safety.

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Eleni Diakogeorgiou, R. Richard Ray Jr., Sara Brown, Jay Hertel, and Douglas J. Casa

Athletic training as a profession traces back to Ancient Greece with the birth of athletics ( Ebel, 1999 ). The Greeks viewed Herodicus, a physician and a mentee of Hippocrates, as an athletic trainer (AT; Ebel, 1999 ). During the dark ages, athletic training went dormant until the 1800s ( Ebel

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Rebecca M. Hirschhorn, Cassidy Holland, Amy F. Hand, and James M. Mensch

Key Points ▸ Physicians have more positive perceptions of athletic trainers’ skills than previous research has indicated. ▸ Organization and administration continues to be a perceived weakness among the athletic training domains. ▸ Experience working with an athletic trainer did not significantly

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Ana C. Santos-Mariano, Fabiano Tomazini, Cintia Rodacki, Romulo Bertuzzi, Fernando De-Oliveira, and Adriano E. Lima-Silva

then to replicate this intake during the 24 hours before the fifth day. The participants were instructed to have their last meal at least 3 hours before the competition, as they usually do before a real competition. Competition The competition was performed on an official synthetic athletic track. The

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Eddie Comeaux and Adam Martin

Women’s systematic exclusion from the realm of sport was documented as long ago as the 8th century BCE in Greece ( Wackwitz, 2003 ). Early efforts to preclude women from competing in athletic events led to widespread, long-term exclusion that has both formed and perpetuated traditional definitions

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Russell L. Muir

lead to decisional errors. 9 – 14 This can be especially true for health care practitioners like athletic trainers (ATs) who routinely make decisions under duress, with constrained time and in uncertain and changing circumstances. 1 , 15 The theory of bounded rationality indicates that our cognitive

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Garrison A. Chan and Dale R. Wagner

Key Points ▸ The National Athletic Trainers’ Association position statement recommends monitoring wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) for heat risk assessment. ▸ A total of 72% of National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision athletic training staffs monitor WBGT. ▸ Common

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Megan Drew, Trent A. Petrie, and Tess Palmateer

environments, through messages communicated by coaches, teammates, parents, and other athletic department personnel about these values, can deter athletes from asking for help and receiving the assistance they may need to address their MH concerns (e.g.,  Bauman, 2016 ; Breslin et al., 2017 ; Moesch et

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Kristen Couper Schellhase, Emily Tran, Shannon Carmody, Peter Dawry, and L. Colby Mangum

Key Points ▸ Retention was related to support, connections, and security. ▸ Key areas of support included administrator support and having a partner athletic trainer. ▸ Athletic trainers value how they can make an impact on their students/patients. ▸ Feeling secure encourages retention even if job