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Damien Clement and Monna Arvinen-Barrow

model presumes that these professionals/individuals will be part of the primary rehabilitation team or the secondary rehabilitation team, depending on their importance to the athlete in the injury rehabilitation process. The model proposes that the primary team consist of medical professionals (eg, athletic

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Jairus J. Quesnele, Michelle A. Laframboise, Jessica J. Wong, Peter Kim, and Greg D. Wells


To critically review the methodological quality and synthesize information from systematic reviews and high quality studies on the effects of beta alanine (BA) on exercise and athletic performance.


A search strategy was developed in accordance with the standards for the reporting of scientific literature via systematic reviews. Five databases were thoroughly searched from inception to November 2012. Inclusion criteria were English language, human studies, used BA to increase exercise or athletic performance, systematic reviews or randomized controlled trials and were published in a peer-reviewed journal. Included studies were systematically graded for their methodological quality by rotating pairs of reviewers and the results were qualitatively synthesized.


One systematic review and 19 randomized trials were included in this review. There is one systematic review with several methodological weaknesses that limit the confidence in its results. There are moderate to high quality studies that appear to support that BA may increase power output and working capacity, decrease the feeling of fatigue and exhaustion, and have of positive effect on body composition and carnosine content. The reporting of side effects from BA supplementation in the athletic population was generally under-reported.


There appears to be some evidence from this review that supplementation with BA may increase athletic performance. However, there is insufficient evidence examining the safety of BA supplementation and its side effects. It is therefore recommended to err on the side of caution in using BA as an ergogenic aid until there is sufficient evidence confirming its safety.

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Rebecca M. Hirschhorn, Cassidy Holland, Amy F. Hand, and James M. Mensch

Key Points ▸ Physicians have more positive perceptions of athletic trainers’ skills than previous research has indicated. ▸ Organization and administration continues to be a perceived weakness among the athletic training domains. ▸ Experience working with an athletic trainer did not significantly

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Eddie Comeaux and Adam Martin

Women’s systematic exclusion from the realm of sport was documented as long ago as the 8th century BCE in Greece ( Wackwitz, 2003 ). Early efforts to preclude women from competing in athletic events led to widespread, long-term exclusion that has both formed and perpetuated traditional definitions

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Garrison A. Chan and Dale R. Wagner

Key Points ▸ The National Athletic Trainers’ Association position statement recommends monitoring wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) for heat risk assessment. ▸ A total of 72% of National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision athletic training staffs monitor WBGT. ▸ Common

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Riana R. Pryor, Summer Runestad, Bethany A. Chong Gum, Nathan J. Fuller, Moon Kang, and Jennifer J. Beck

Key Points ▸ Nearly two-thirds of California secondary schools do not hire a certified athletic trainer. ▸ Fewer California secondary schools hire an athletic trainer compared to the nationwide average. ▸ Many schools hired nonmedical personnel to provide sports medicine services to student

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Cesar R. Torres

more consequential, social undertakings—sport and athletic commitment continue to be denounced as trivial, no matter the copious time athletes devote to reach excellence in their sport (see, among others, Torres, 2018b ). Against the backdrop of this abiding trivialization, this paper explores the

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Megan N. Sears, Dani M. Moffit, and Rebecca M. Lopez

whom they share similar racial backgrounds. According to the 2018 National Athletic Trainers’ Association (NATA) Ethnicity Demographic Data, certified athletic trainers identify as 79.89% Non-Hispanic White, 5.46% Hispanic, 4.26% Black, 3.73% Asian or Pacific Islander, 1.98% Multi-ethnic, 0

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Aquasia A. Shaw, Merry Moiseichik, Heather Blunt-Vinti, and Sarah Stokowski

Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) is not intentionally engaging in racial discrimination, the organization’s current policies and practices arguably perpetuate unequal racial outcomes ( Cooper, Nwadike, & Macaulay, 2017 ) and “reproduces the inequitable conditions of institutions and sociocultural

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Christianne M. Eason, Stephanie M. Singe, and Kelsey Rynkiewicz

Work–family conflict (WFC) is an area of interest that has been studied extensively in the athletic trainer population, with a focus on causes and consequences. 1 – 5 Conflict can be described as an incompatibility between two or more opinions, interests, or roles. The demands associated with the