Based on the tenets of role congruity theory, the current study examined the unequal representation of men and women in athletic administration positions. A total of 158 female and 118 male (n = 276) athletic administrators evaluated a male or female candidate for an athletic director, compliance director, or life skills director position within athletics. Participants indicated no significant differences in masculine ratings of male or female candidates and significant differences in feminine ratings for female candidates in the life skills position. Male and female candidates were perceived as similar in potential and likely success in all positions. Finally, the female candidate was evaluated as significantly less likely to be offered the athletic director position when compared with the male candidate.
Perceptions of Gender in Athletic Administration: Utilizing Role Congruity to Examine (Potential) Prejudice Against Women
Laura J. Burton, Heidi Grappendorf, and Angela Henderson
Mentoring in Intercollegiate Athletic Administration
Margie A. Weaver and Packianathan Chelladurai
Associate/Assistant athletic administrators from Division I (139 males, 123 females) and Division III (130 males, 123 females) universities of the NCAA responded to a questionnaire consisting of (a) items eliciting background information, (b) perceived and preferred mentoring functions measured by the Mentor Role Instrument (Ragins & McFarlin, 1990), (c) perceived barriers to mentoring measured by Perceived Barriers Scale (Ragins & Cotton, 1991), and a scale of satisfaction developed for the study. Factor analysis yielded three facets of satisfaction: Work Group, Extrinsic Rewards, and Intrinsic Rewards. The results of MÁNOVA showed that an equal proportion of males and females had experienced mentoring relationships, and mentored individuals were more satisfied with work than their non-mentored counterparts. Respondents from Division I received significantly higher salaries, and they were more satisfied with their extrinsic rewards than the respondents from Division III. Finally, correlational analyses showed positive but weak relationships between mentoring functions and the satisfaction facets.
Applying Career Construction Theory to Female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Conference Commissioners
Elizabeth A. Taylor, Jessica L. Siegele, Allison B. Smith, and Robin Hardin
integrated nature of decision making surrounding career development, and other life choices, may be helpful in uncovering why individuals make certain decisions regarding their career ( Savickas, 2005 ). Women in Collegiate Athletic Administration CCT focuses on the meaning individuals place on career
“It’s Like Being on an Island by Yourself”: Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Administrators’ Perceptions of Barriers to Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Work in Intercollegiate Athletics
Yannick Kluch, Raquel Wright-Mair, Nicholas Swim, and Robert Turick
athletic administration . Journal of Intercollegiate Sport, 6, 213 – 230 . https://doi.org/10.1123/jis.6.2.213 10.1123/jis.6.2.213 Burton , L , Grappendorf , H , & Henderson , A. ( 2011 ). Perceptions of gender in athletic administration: Utilizing role congruity theory to examine (potential
Examining How High School Athletic Directors Leverage Communication With Key Stakeholder Groups to Inform Performance Appraisals of Head Coaches
advantage . Strategic Management Journal, 31 ( 1 ), 58 – 74 . https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.801 Hill , G. , & Pluschke , M. ( 2005 ). Criteria for evaluating high school coaches . Interscholastic Athletic Administration, 23 ( 1 ), 14 – 15 . Hoch , D.A. ( 1989 ). The perceptions of
Workaholism in Sport: A Mediated Model of Work–Family Conflict and Burnout
Elizabeth A. Taylor, Matt R. Huml, and Marlene A. Dixon
Although workaholism can impact employees negatively, regardless of family situations, work–family conflict likely plays an important role in the relationship between workaholism and negative outcomes, such as burnout. The authors used structural modeling to examine the relationship among workaholism, employee burnout, and the work–family interface within the context of intercollegiate athletics. They tested the model across a large, diverse sample of athletic department employees (N = 4,453). The results indicated a significant, positive relationship between workaholism and burnout, as well as a significant, positive relationship between workaholism and burnout partially mediated by work–family conflict. These findings suggest the importance of considering both the work and nonwork lives of sport employees in both theory and practice; models of workaholism must factor in nonwork commitments, and organizations need to be cognizant of differences in the causes of and consequences between work engagement and workaholism.
It’s Powerful, Legitimate, and Urgent, but Is It Equitable? Stakeholder Claims Within the Attributes of Stakeholder Salience in Sport
Matt R. Huml, Marion E. Hambrick, Mary A. Hums, and Calvin Nite
Managers must collect and prioritize claims made by their stakeholders as they decide the direction of their organization. Previous research has focused on stakeholders’ use of power, legitimacy, and urgency to prioritize their claims over others. Fewer studies have examined the perspectives of stakeholders and how they aligned their responses with elements of stakeholder theory in the hopes of gaining salience with management. Additionally, scholars have requested further examination of other themes beyond the established categories of stakeholder salience. This study aimed to investigate how stakeholders would respond with power, legitimacy, and urgency-related claims when faced with changes to their organization’s governing structure. We utilized stakeholder theory and the established attributes of stakeholder salience (i.e., power, legitimacy, and urgency) to examine the perceptions of Division II college coaches and their responses to recently approved National Collegiate Athletic Association legislative changes. In addition to the three previously established stakeholder attributes, equity-related claims made by stakeholders emerged, extending the stakeholder theory research.
Stereotype Threat and Interscholastic Athletic Leadership
James P. Strode, W. Andrew Czekanski, Anna W. Parkman, and Meredith K. Scarlata
power within athletic administration (e.g., only 14% of all high school ADs are women; Dombeck, 2018 ), are often marginalized ( Whisenant et al., 2002 ), and are more likely to face antagonistic workplaces ( Cunningham, 2008 ) leaving them potentially vulnerable to the effects of gender stereotype
Just How Competitive Are We? Managing Organizational Culture in a Canadian University Athletics Department
Jules Woolf, Jess C. Dixon, B. Christine Green, and Patrick J. Hill
Christiaan Jacobs is the new Dean of Student Affairs at the University of South Central Ontario, which puts him in charge of the Department of Athletics and Recreation. Jacobs has learned that the hypercompetitive environment established by the athletic director, Nathan Scott, has been causing friction in many areas of the department, potentially resulting in the resignation of several long-term employees. As part of an organizational audit, he interviewed many employees and had them complete the Competing Values Framework questionnaire, the results of which were troubling. How should Jacobs lead this department forward and can he count on Scott to be supportive of the direction that he wants it to go? The purpose of this case is to introduce students to the importance of organizational culture and challenges to organizational change. Students will learn about the Competing Values Framework, change management, and have the opportunity to analyze qualitative and quantitative data in formulating responses to the case-guiding questions. This decision-focused case is suitable for use with upper division undergraduate and graduate sport management students in courses such as Organizational Behavior, Strategic Management, Collegiate Athletics Administration, and Critical Issues in Sport.
The Tipping Point: The Intersection of Race, Gender, and Sexual Orientation in Intercollegiate Sports
Nefertiti A. Walker and E. Nicole Melton
To date, sport research on sexuality has primarily focused on White lesbian, bisexual, and gay (LBG) persons or heterosexual racial minorities; few studies have provided meaningful insight into how sexual prejudice affects racial minorities. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to explore the intersection of race, sexual orientation, and gender in the context of collegiate sport and examine the influence of multiple marginalized identities on organizational outcomes. Grounded in intersectionality literature and feminist standpoint theory, semistructured interviews were conducted with 15 current and former intercollegiate sport employees. Results revealed four higher order themes: (a) racially influenced experiences, (b) managing lesbian-ness, (c) organizational climate, and (d) organizational outcomes. This research expands the theoretical knowledge of intersectionality, introduces a turnover intention tipping point phenomenon, and provides mangers with firsthand feedback on current policy and norms that may decrease satisfaction.