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Daniel K. Rogers, Ian McKeown, Gaynor Parfitt, Darren Burgess, and Roger G. Eston

The concepts underpinning long-term athletic-development models suggest that foundational movement skills be developed prior to undertaking sport-specific training methods. 1 While research into training methods at the elite level of Australian Rules football (ARF) is scarce, it is commonly

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Richard D. Ginsburg, Steven R. Smith, Nicole Danforth, T. Atilla Ceranoglu, Stephen A. Durant, Hayley Kamin, Rebecca Babcock, Lucy Robin, and Bruce Masek

Two developmental pathways to sport excellence have been described: early specialization and early sampling (Côté, Lidor, & Hackfort, 2009). Despite a common assumption that early specialization (defined as playing one sport exclusively and intensely before age 12) is a necessary precursor to success at the collegiate or professional levels, research to support this assumption remains unclear. To add to this literature, the current study was a survey of 708 minor league professional baseball players on the ages at which they began to specialize in their sport. Results indicated that most players sampled a diversity of sports up through late adolescence. Only 25% of players specialized before the age of 12 and the mean age of specialization was 15 years. Furthermore, those who specialized later were more likely to receive college scholarships. Finally, we examined patterns of specialization as a function of athletes’ home climate and culture. At least in this sample of professional minor league baseball players, an early sampling pathway seems to have fortified success at both the collegiate and professional levels.

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Jack Martin and David Cox

A recently developed social psychological and biographical approach to the study of lives, life positioning analysis (LPA), is applied to the early life experiences of Canadian basketball player Steve Nash for the purpose of identifying sources of his athletic creativity and work ethic. The analysis focuses on Nash’s childhood and adolescence, especially his interactions with his father, brother, coaches, friends, and teammates. The interpretations, results, and conclusions offered describe specific types of interaction with these other individuals as likely influences on the development of important psychological aspects of the team oriented creativity that came to characterize Nash’s unique athletic style. The article concludes with a brief description of the unique yields and possible contributions of this type of biographical case study as a methodological approach in sport psychology.

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Liz Wanless and Jeffrey L. Stinson

growth; there are only so many tickets or corporate sponsorships to sell ( Gladden, Mahony, & Apostolopoulou, 2005 ), while fundraising dollars are not similarly constrained. With the rise of social media and digital outlets, athletic contributions can garner a wider reach, and athletic development

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James Tompsett and Chris Knoester

athletic development, that may enable individuals to play sports at the collegiate level, for example. Underlying the development of athletic ability is the reality that the ability to accumulate and develop skill varies, due to family SES ( Eckstein, 2017 ; Farrey, 2008 ; McGovern, 2018 ). A ubiquitous

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Lara Pomerleau-Fontaine, Gordon A. Bloom, and Danielle Alexander

sporting level ( Santos et al., 2018 ; Townsend et al., 2020 ). Previous research has identified effective coaching strategies and behaviors that contributed to parasport athletes’ personal and athletic development, including autonomy-supportive behaviors ( Banack et al., 2011 ), promoting independence

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Eric W. MacIntosh and Popi Sotiriadou

role of pre-elite events as athletic development agents that aid in talent transition. This finding adds a newfound dimension of athlete transition to the elite level and stresses the role of competition in athlete development. Limitations and Future Research In this study, we did not ask about

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Gabriella McLoughlin, Courtney Weisman Fecske, Yvette Castaneda, Candace Gwin, and Kim Graber

that adapted physical activity through sport participation should promote self-determination and provide choice to augment self-regulation. To increase the number of individuals who participate in adapted sport, it is beneficial to understand the motivations and athletic development of those who do

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Andrew Murray

While historically adolescents were removed from their parents to prepare to become warriors, this process repeats itself in modern times but with the outcome being athletic performance. This review considers the process of developing athletes and managing load against the backdrop of differing approaches of conserving and maximizing the talent available. It acknowledges the typical training “dose” that adolescent athletes receive across a number of sports and the typical “response” when it is excessive or not managed appropriately. It also examines the best approaches to quantifying load and injury risk, acknowledging the relative strengths and weaknesses of subjective and objective approaches. Making evidence-based decisions is emphasized, while the appropriate monitoring techniques are determined by both the sporting context and individual situation. Ultimately a systematic approach to training-load monitoring is recommended for adolescent athletes to both maximize their athletic development and allow an opportunity for learning, reflection, and enhancement of performance knowledge of coaches and practitioners.