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David Antonio Gonzalez, Adam Dubrowski and Heather Carnahan

Visual and haptic integration has been examined extensively, however little is known about alternative premovement sensory information to help in the anticipatory control of prehension. This study explored the concept of using auditory cues as an alternative premovement cue. Individuals lifted champagne flutes filled with various levels of water; and one group was given a sound cue before lifting. Sounds provided a precue regarding fluid level and hence mass. Results showed that auditory cues were used to predict the “target force” required to lift the masses, as evidenced by scaling of grip rates as a function of mass in the auditory cue group only. It was hypothesized that individuals used the auditory cues to preprogram the grasping forces produced during the lifting movement.

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Rachel L. Wright, Joseph W. Bevins, David Pratt, Catherine M. Sackley and Alan M. Wing

be synchronized to auditory cues. 21 The use of a periodic auditory pacing stimulus has been investigated as a means to improve temporal symmetry after stroke by providing a time reference frame for gait events. 22 – 24 Chronic stroke participants are able to synchronize their step timing to a

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Elizabeth L. Stegemöller, Joshua R. Tatz, Alison Warnecke, Paul Hibbing, Brandon Bates and Andrew Zaman

; Stegemöller, Simuni, & MacKinnon, 2009 ). Furthermore, research has demonstrated that changes in motor cortical activity are associated with impaired movement performance near to and above 120 bpm ( Stegemöller, Allen, Simuni, & MacKinnon, 2016 , 2017 ). Yet, auditory cues, including music, are commonly

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David A. Rowe, David McMinn, Leslie Peacock, Arjan W. P. Buis, Rona Sutherland, Emma Henderson and Allan Hewitt


Walking cadence has shown promise for estimating walking intensity in healthy adults. Auditory cues have been shown to improve gait symmetry in populations with movement disorders. We investigated the walking cadence-energy expenditure relationship in unilateral transtibial amputees (TTAs), and the potential of music cues for regulating walking cadence and improving gait symmetry.


Seventeen unilateral TTAs performed 2 5-min treadmill walking trials, followed by 2 5-min overground walking trials (self-regulated “brisk” intensity, and while attempting to match a moderate-tempo digital music cue).


Walking cadence significantly (P < .001) and accurately (R 2 = .55, SEE = 0.50 METs) predicted energy expenditure, and a cadence of 86 steps·min−1 was equivalent to a 3-MET intensity. Although most participants were able to match cadence to prescribed music tempo, gait symmetry was not improved during the music-guided condition, compared with the self-regulated condition.


This is the first study to investigate the utility of walking cadence for monitoring and regulating walking intensity in adults with lower limb prosthesis. Cadence has similar or superior accuracy as an indicator of walking intensity in this population, compared with the general population, and adults with a unilateral TTA are capable of walking at moderate intensity and above for meaningful bouts of time.

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Hirokazu Sasaki, Junya Masumoto and Nobuyuki Inui

The present study examined whether the elderly produced a hastened or delayed tap with a negative or positive constant intertap interval error more frequently in self-paced tapping than in the stimulus-synchronized tapping for the 2 N target force at 2 or 4 Hz frequency. The analysis showed that, at both frequencies, the percentage of the delayed tap was larger in the self-paced tapping than in the stimulus-synchronized tapping, whereas the hastened tap showed the opposite result. At the 4 Hz frequency, all age groups had more variable intertap intervals during the self-paced tapping than during the stimulus-synchronized tapping, and the variability of the intertap intervals increased with age. Thus, although the increase in the frequency of delayed taps and variable intertap intervals in the self-paced tapping perhaps resulted from a dysfunction of movement timing in the basal ganglia with age, the decline in timing accuracy was somewhat improved by an auditory cue. The force variability of tapping at 4 Hz further increased with age, indicating an effect of aging on the control of force.

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Dylan C. Perry, Christopher C. Moore, Colleen J. Sands, Elroy J. Aguiar, Zachary R. Gould, Catrine Tudor-Locke and Scott W. Ducharme

approach for communicating ambulatory PA intensity guidelines and improving health. 4 One method for prescribing cadence recommendations involves instructing individuals to synchronize or entrain their foot strikes to rhythmic auditory cues (RAC). 6 , 7 The RAC take advantage of existing intimate neural

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Timothy Martinson, Stephen A. Butterfield, Craig A. Mason, Shihfen Tu, Robert A. Lehnhard and Christopher J. Nightingale

to assess aerobic capacity. The protocol for the PACER requires participants to keep pace with an auditory cue (beep) as it systematically progresses in intensity. The frequency of beeps increase at predetermined intervals. Participants are required to traverse a 20-m distance before an auditory

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Iva Obrusnikova, Haley M. Novak and Albert R. Cavalier

included watching her performance of the exercise steps in a video and rerecording the video until she performed all steps of the exercise. Using the Cute CUT Pro Mac software (YU BO, 2018 MobiVio Solutions, China), the videos were enhanced with (a) auditory cues to highlight each exercise step and (b

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Deborah A. Jehu, Yves Lajoie and Nicole Paquet

during double-leg stance. During the SRT trials, participants were asked to verbally respond “tie” to high-pitched auditory cues that were randomly administered throughout the trials. There were between 1 and 4 stimuli presented per trial. During the CRT trials, participants were presented with random

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Deborah A.M. Jehu, Nicole Paquet and Yves Lajoie

auditory stimuli were administered during double-leg stance. During the SRT trials, participants were asked to verbally respond “tie” to high-pitched auditory cues that were randomly administered throughout the trials. Between 1 and 4, stimuli were presented per trial. During the CRT trials, participants