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Rahel Gilgen-Ammann, Thomas Wyss, Severin Troesch, Louis Heyer and Wolfgang Taube

movement. Information about one’s own performance provided by an external source is called augmented feedback (aF). The use of aF has previously been shown to improve motor performance in the short and long term. 2 – 4 However, aF only seems beneficial when it provides information in addition to

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Jonathon Weakley, Kevin Till, John Sampson, Harry Banyard, Cedric Leduc, Kyle Wilson, Greg Roe and Ben Jones

, 11 the ability for augmented feedback to enhance physical adaptations has shown promise. 8 , 9 , 11 Nagata et al 9 demonstrated large improvements (effect size [ES]: 1.25) in jump squat velocity for subjects who were provided immediate verbal feedback of barbell velocity following each training

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John B. Cronin, Eadric Bressel and Loren Finn

Context:

Frequency and magnitude of ground reaction forces (GRF) have been implicated in causing injuries such as “jumpers knee.”

Objective:

To investigate whether a single session of augmented feedback concerning landing technique would decrease GRF.

Design:

Pretest posttest experimental design.

Setting:

University biomechanics laboratory.

Participants:

Fifteen female Division 1 intercollegiate volleyball players.

Intervention:

Participants were required to land on a force platform after spiking a volleyball from a four-step approach before and after an intervention involving visual and aural augmented feedback on correct jumping and landing technique.

Main Outcome Measures:

Mediolateral (ML), anterioposterior (AP), and vertical (V) GRF normalized to body weight (BW).

Results:

Augmented feedback was found to significantly (P = 0.01) decrease VGRF by 23.6% but not ML (25%, P = 0.16) and AP (4.9%, P = 0.40) peak GRF.

Conclusions:

A single session of augmented feedback may be effective in reducing VGRF in collegiate athletes.

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Regina Markland and Thomas J. Martinek

This study examined the nature and amount of feedback that more successful and less successful high school varsity volleyball coaches gave to their starting and nonstarting volleyball players. Two of the four coaches studied were considered more successful and two were considered less successful, based on previous regular season win-loss percentages. Players of all the coaches (N=41) were also used as subjects and identified as having either a starting or nonstarting role on the team. All subjects were observed on three occasions for 30 minutes per observation during regular season practice. The Cole Descriptive Analysis System (Cole-DAS) was used to observe coach augmented feedback as it was given to individual players in response to skilled performance. A 2 × 2 multivariate analysis of variance was used to describe the effects of (a) success of the coach, (b) role of the player, and (c) both success of the coach and role of the player on the dependent variables of coach augmented feedback. Results indicated that successful coaches varied considerably from less successful coaches in the types of feedback given to their players. Starting players were also found to receive significantly more audio, audiovisual, and immediate terminal feedback than nonstarting players.

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Benjamin W. Stroube, Gregory D. Myer, Jensen L. Brent, Kevin R. Ford, Robert S. Heidt Jr. and Timothy E. Hewett

Context:

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are prevalent in female athletes. Specific factors have possible links to increasing a female athlete’s chances of suffering an ACL injury. However, it is unclear if augmented feedback may be able to decrease possible risk factors.

Objective:

To compare the effects of task-specific feedback on a repeated tuck-jump maneuver.

Design:

Double-blind randomized controlled trial.

Setting:

Sports-medicine biodynamics center.

Patients:

37 female subjects (14.7 ± 1.5 y, 160.9 ± 6.8 cm, 54.5 ± 7.2 kg).

Intervention:

All athletes received standard off-season training consisting of strength training, plyometrics, and conditioning. They were also videotaped during each session while running on a treadmill at a standardized speed (8 miles/h) and while performing a repeated tuck-jump maneuver for 10 s. The augmented feedback group (AF) received feedback on deficiencies present in a 10-s tuck jump, while the control group (CTRL) received feedback on 10-s treadmill running.

Main Outcome Measures:

Outcome measurements of tuck-jump deficits were scored by a blinded rater to determine the effects of group (CTRL vs AF) and time (pre- vs posttesting) on changes in measured deficits.

Results:

A significant interaction of time by group was noted with the task-specific feedback training (P = .03). The AF group reduced deficits measured during the tuck-jump assessment by 23.6%, while the CTRL training reduced deficits by 10.6%.

Conclusions:

The results of the current study indicate that task-specific feedback is effective for reducing biomechanical risk factors associated with ACL injury. The data also indicate that specific components of the tuck-jump assessment are potentially more modifiable than others.

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Steven K.S. Tan

This study represents a descriptive analysis of feedback patterns and perceptual maps of experienced and inexperienced teachers. Five experienced elementary physical education teachers and 5 inexperienced teachers participated in the study. Data were collected by videotaping and audiotaping three lessons taught by each teacher. Transcripts of audiotapes were made for all verbal feedback administered by the teachers, and each unit of feedback was coded from the written transcripts using a multidimensional observation system. Following the second and third lessons, patterns in cue perception employed by teachers during feedback interaction were accessed using a stimulated recall interview and concept mapping techniques. Results indicated that inexperienced teachers did not differ from experienced teachers in their feedback structure. However, experienced teachers differed from inexperienced teachers on their perceptual patterns. Specifically, perceptual maps of experienced teachers were more complex and were organized hierarchically, whereas inexperienced teachers’ patterns tended to be sparse and hierarchically shallow.

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Julián Gandía, Xavier García-Massó, Adrián Marco-Ahulló and Isaac Estevan

or augmented feedback. On the one hand, intrinsic feedback refers to intrinsic sensory information resulting from movement including vision or proprioception from limbs ( Fujii et al., 2016 ). On the other hand, augmented feedback, which can be seen as supplemental information to intrinsic feedback

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Cassio M. Meira Jr and Jeffrey T. Fairbrother

augmented. Inherent feedback is the information available that comes from the learner’s sensory system as a result of engaging in the task; for example, to see the outcome of a volleyball serve, to hear a tennis ball hit on a racket or to feel the gas pedal on one’s feet. In turn, augmented feedback is

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Jeff E. Goodwin

.A. ( 2001 ). Augmented feedback in motor skill acquisition . In R.N. Singer , H.A. Hausenblas , & C.J. Janelle (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (pp.  86 – 114 ). New York, NY : John Wiley & Sons, Inc . Nicholson , D.E. , & Schmidt , R.A. ( 1991 ). Scheduling information feedback to

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Kirk F. Grand, Marcos Daou, Keith R. Lohse and Matthew W. Miller

The present study investigated whether motivation and augmented feedback processing explain the effect of an incidental choice on motor learning, and examined whether motivation and feedback processing generally predict learning. Accordingly, participants were assigned to one of two groups, choice or yoked, then asked to practice a nondominant arm beanbag toss. The choice group was allowed to choose the color of the beanbag with which they made the toss, whereas the yoked group was not. Motor learning was determined by delayed-posttest accuracy and precision. Motivation and augmented feedback processing were indexed via the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory and electroencephalography, respectively. We predicted the choice group would exhibit greater motor learning, motivation, and augmented feedback processing, and that the latter two variables would predict learning. Results showed that an incidental choice failed to enhance motor learning, motivation, or augmented feedback processing. In addition, neither motivation nor augmented feedback processing predicted motor learning. However, motivation and augmented feedback processing were correlated, with both factors predicting changes in practice performance. Thus, results suggest the effect of incidental choices on motor learning may be tenuous, and indicate motivation and augmented feedback processing may be more closely linked to changes in practice performance than motor learning.