competence increase the likelihood that one is autonomously motivated, while lower levels of competence satisfaction and perceived motor competence are more likely to relate to controlled motivation or even amotivation ( Deci & Ryan, 2000 ). Autonomous motivation is the optimal level of motivation sought as
Ali Brian, An De Meester, Aija Klavina, J. Megan Irwin, Sally Taunton, Adam Pennell, and Lauren J. Lieberman
Athanasios Papaioannou, Dimitrios Milosis, and Christos Gotzaridis
, Kaittani, Derri, & Kioumourtzoglou, 2016 for a recent review). This study seeks to fill the gap, focusing on the effects of the integration of physics concepts in PE on students’ autonomous motivation, which is a major determinant of the adaptive outcomes in education and promotion of wellness ( Ryan
Johan Pelssers, Emalie Hurkmans, Jeroen Scheerder, Norbert Vanbeselaere, Steven Vos, Tim Smits, and Filip Boen
more from a self-intrinsic appreciation of exercising, and thus more originates from within their “self.” SDT distinguishes between two types of motivation: autonomous motivation and controlled motivation. Autonomous motivation refers to the motivation that originates from a predominantly self
Yubing Wang and Ang Chen
tasks. These tasks are presented to students as questions/problems associated with the PAs being experienced to facilitate their knowledge construction. Finally, the content, structure, and instructional system of this curriculum are designed to elicit high levels of autonomous motivation among students
Sami Yli-Piipari, Todd Layne, Janet Hinson, and Carol Irwin
extrinsic motivation (HMIEM; Vallerand, 2007 ), and the theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991 ). Proposition 1 is drawn from the SDT ( Deci & Ryan, 1985 , 2000 ) with the hypothesis that perceived support for autonomous motivation from social agents (e.g., teachers) toward school-based PA (e
Cindy Rutten, Filip Boen, and Jan Seghers
Based on the self-determination theory, this study investigated the mediating role of the satisfaction of the three psychological needs (need for competence, relatedness and autonomy) in the relation between need support from the physical education (PE) teacher and autonomous motivation to engage in PE and between the physical school environment and autonomous motivation to engage in PE. Data were collected from 2418 6th grade children. Analyses were performed using bootstrapping. The results showed that perceptions of competence and autonomy mediated the relation between need support from the PE teacher and autonomous motivation. Moreover, the perception of autonomy also mediated the relation between the physical school environment and autonomous motivation. These findings suggest that not only the PE teacher but also the physical school environment is able to promote autonomous motivation by satisfying the need for autonomy.
Cindy Rutten, Filip Boen, and Jan Seghers
Based on self-determination theory, the purpose of this study was to explore the mediating role of autonomous motivation in the relation between environmental factors and pedometer-determined PA among 10- to 12-year-old Flemish children. Data were collected from 787 6th grade pupils and one of their parents. Children completed self-report measures including autonomous motivation for PA and perceived autonomy support for PA by parents and friends. Parents completed a questionnaire concerning their PA related parenting practices (logistic support and explicit modeling) and the perceived home environment with respect to PA opportunities. The results confirmed that autonomous motivation mediated the relation between children’s PA and their perceived autonomy support by friends and parents. Autonomous motivation also mediated the relation between parental logistic support and PA. In addition, a positive direct relation was found between parental explicit modeling and children’s PA, and between perceived neighborhood safety and children’s PA.
Johanna Nurmi, Martin S. Hagger, Ari Haukkala, Vera Araújo-Soares, and Nelli Hankonen
This study tested the predictive validity of a multitheory process model in which the effect of autonomous motivation from self-determination theory on physical activity participation is mediated by the adoption of self-regulatory techniques based on control theory. Finnish adolescents (N = 411, aged 17–19) completed a prospective survey including validated measures of the predictors and physical activity, at baseline and after one month (N = 177). A subsample used an accelerometer to objectively measure physical activity and further validate the physical activity self-report assessment tool (n = 44). Autonomous motivation statistically significantly predicted action planning, coping planning, and self-monitoring. Coping planning and self-monitoringmediated the effect of autonomous motivation on physical activity, although self-monitoring was the most prominent. Controlled motivation had no effect on self-regulation techniques or physical activity. Developing interventions that support autonomous motivation for physical activity may foster increased engagement in self-regulation techniques and positively affect physical activity behavior.
Benjamin D. Sylvester, Martyn Standage, Tavinder K. Ark, Shane N. Sweet, Peter R.E. Crocker, Bruno D. Zumbo, and Mark R. Beauchamp
In this study, we examined whether perceived variety in exercise prospectively predicts unique variance in exercise behavior when examined alongside satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs (for competence, relatedness, and autonomy) embedded within self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002), through the mediating role of autonomous and controlled motivation. A convenience sample of community adults (N = 363) completed online questionnaires twice over a 6-week period. The results of structural equation modeling showed perceived variety and satisfaction of the needs for competence and relatedness to be unique indirect positive predictors of exercise behavior (through autonomous motivation) 6 weeks later. In addition, satisfaction of the need for autonomy was found to negatively predict controlled motivation. Perceived variety in exercise complemented satisfaction of the needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy in predicting motivation and (indirectly) exercise behavior, and may act as a salient mechanism in the prediction of autonomous motivation and behavior in exercise settings.
Cindy Rutten, Filip Boen, Nathalie Vissers, and Jan Seghers
Based on Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), this study tested whether changes in autonomous motivation toward physical education (AMPE) during the transition from elementary to secondary school can be predicted by changes in perceived need support from the physical education (PE) teacher and perceived physical school environment. Self-reported data were gathered from 472 Flemish (northern part of Belgium) students in 6th grade (2009) and again in 8th grade (2011). Mediation analyses showed that an increase in perceived need support from the PE teacher was related to an increase in AMPE (boys: β = .42; girls: β = .50). In boys, this relation was mediated by changes in perceived competence (β = .08). In girls, this relation was mediated by changes in perceived autonomy (β = .12), perceived competence (β = .14), and perceived relatedness (β = .05). This study shows that PE teachers should be need-supportive to maintain a good quality of motivation in students.