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Ian M. Taylor and Chris Lonsdale

Using basic psychological needs theory (BPNT; Ryan & Deci, 2000) as our guiding framework, we explored cultural differences in the relationships among physical education students’ perceptions of teacher autonomy support, psychological need satisfaction, subjective vitality and effort in class. Seven hundred and fifteen students (age range from 13 to 15 years) from the U.K. and Hong Kong, China, completed a multisection inventory during a timetabled physical education class. Multilevel analyses revealed that the relationships among autonomy support, subjective vitality and effort were mediated by students’ perceptions of psychological need satisfaction. The relationship between autonomy support and perceptions of competence was stronger in the Chinese sample, compared with the U.K. sample. In addition, the relationship between perceptions of relatedness and effort was not significant in the Chinese students. The findings generally support the pan-cultural utility of BPNT and imply that a teacher-created autonomy supportive environment may promote positive student experiences in both cultures.

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Gert-Jan De Muynck, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Jochen Delrue, Nathalie Aelterman, Leen Haerens and Bart Soenens

; Vansteenkiste, Niemiec, & Soenens, 2010 ), feedback will yield a motivating effect if it supports athletes’ basic psychological needs for competence (i.e., feeling effective) and autonomy (i.e., experiencing a sense of volition), as the satisfaction of these needs nurtures intrinsic motivation ( Deci, Koestner

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Nicholas S. Washburn, K. Andrew R. Richards and Oleg A. Sinelnikov

, anchored at one end by those that are highly autonomy-supportive and at the other by those that are highly controlling ( Reeve, 2009 ). Autonomy-supportive teachers generally act in ways that support students’ innate desire for psychological need satisfaction (PNS; Reeve, 2009 ). In application, these

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Jeeyoon Kim and Jeffrey D. James

spectating, and sport media viewing can be such activities. Therefore, need fulfillment is adopted as a key construct to help explain SWB effects in sport consumption. We posit that psychological needs for detachment-recovery, autonomy, achievement, and belonging can be fulfilled through sport consumption

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Lindsay E. Kipp, Nicole D. Bolter and Alison Phillips Reichter

athletes’ well-being, namely self-esteem and healthy eating patterns, we used self-determination theory (SDT [ 25 , 26 ]), which states that the social context influences various aspects of well-being via satisfaction of 3 psychological needs: perceived competence, autonomy, and relatedness. In line with

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Kimberly Long, Shawn Meredith and Gerald W. Bell

Autonomic dysreflexia (AD), which occurs in individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCI) above T-6, is caused by an exaggerated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response to a noxious stimulus. Blood pressure (BP) elevation is a chief symptom of acute AD; this rise in BP makes AD potentially life threatening. Autonomic dysreflexia is also referred to as autonomic hyperreflexia. For this discussion, autonomic dysreflexia will be the term used. It is estimated that approximately 90% of competitive athletes with quadriplegia have intentionally induced AD in order to enhance performance (Burnham et al., 1994). This practice, which is called “boosting,” appears to be an effective, but potentially dangerous, performance enhancement technique. Individuals who work with athletes with SCI above T-6 should be aware of the symptoms, dangers, and treatment of AD, as well as the practice of boosting in order to ensure the safety of these athletes.

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Johannes Raabe, Katrin Schmidt, Johannes Carl and Oliver Höner

-being; Cheval, Chalabaev, Quested, Courvoisier, & Sarrazin, 2017 ). According to Ryan and Deci ( 2017 ), these positive outcomes can be nurtured by satisfying the inherent basic psychological needs of competence (i.e., feeling capable of being physical active); autonomy (i.e., having a certain amount of choice

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Vinícius Y.B. Suetake, Emerson Franchini, Bruna T.C. Saraiva, Anne K.F. da Silva, Aline F.B. Bernardo, Rayane L. Gomes, Luiz Carlos M. Vanderlei and Diego G.D. Christofaro

The autonomic nervous system plays a fundamental role in regulating many body systems. Through afferent and efferent stimuli, it is able to modulate the body according to its momentary need ( 38 ). The ability of the autonomic nervous system to modulate heart rate beat to beat can be assessed by

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Júlio A. Costa, João Brito, Fábio Y. Nakamura, Eduardo M. Oliveira, Ovidio P. Costa and António N. Rebelo

In fact, monitoring training-related cardiac autonomic responses has been facilitated by the use of ultra-short-term HRV measurement after waking. 8 In spite of its usefulness, this method does not allow analysis of the time course of cardiac autonomic recovery postexercise or quantification of HRV

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Fraser Carson and Remco C. J. Polman

The aim of this case study was to investigate the emotional factors and coping strategies used by a professional rugby union player during rehabilitation from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. A dominant (qualitative) - less dominant (quantitative) mixed methodological approach was established concurrent with the athlete’s rehabilitation. Twice monthly interviews and a self-report diary were completed throughout the rehabilitation process. Six questionnaires were used to assess specific aspects of injury rehabilitation identified from previous literature, including emotional response, coping, social support, and perceived autonomy. Content analysis of each phase of the rehabilitation process established 34 higher-order themes split into two general dimensions: Influential Emotions or Coping Strategies. Findings highlight the benefit of problem-focused coping to improve autonomy and confidence. A sequential movement through a series of emotions (shock, depression, relief, encouragement, and confidence building) was also identified.