total, we hypothesized that shyness would predict loneliness among older adults. Avoidance and loneliness On the approach–avoidance model, avoidant individuals are classified as high avoidance motive and low approach motive. In other words, these individuals actively avoid social interactions and have
Melanie S. Hill, Jeremy B. Yorgason, Larry J. Nelson, and Alexander C. Jensen
Louise Davis and Sophia Jowett
The present preliminary study aimed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a new sport-specific self-report instrument designed to assess athletes’ and coaches’ attachment styles. The development and initial validation comprised three main phases. In Phase 1, a pool of items was generated based on pre-existing self-report attachment instruments, modified to reflect a coach and an athlete’s style of attachment. In Phase 2, the content validity of the items was assessed by a panel of experts. A final scale was developed and administered to 405 coaches and 298 athletes (N = 703 participants). In Phase 3, confirmatory factor analysis of the obtained data was conducted to determine the final items of the Coach-Athlete Attachment Scale (CAAS). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed acceptable goodness of ft indexes for a 3-first order factor model as well as a 2-first order factor model for both the athlete and the coach data, respectively. A secure attachment style positively predicted relationship satisfaction, while an insecure attachment style was a negative predictor of relationship satisfaction. The CAAS revealed initial psychometric properties of content, factorial, and predictive validity, as well as reliability.
Derwin K. C. Chan, Vanessa Lentillon-Kaestner, James A. Dimmock, Robert J. Donovan, David A. Keatley, Sarah J. Hardcastle, and Martin S. Hagger
We applied the strength-energy model of self-control to understand the relationship between self-control and young athletes’ behavioral responses to taking illegal performance-enhancing substances, or “doping.” Measures of trait self-control, attitude and intention toward doping, intention toward, and adherence to, doping-avoidant behaviors, and the prevention of unintended doping behaviors were administered to 410 young Australian athletes. Participants also completed a “lollipop” decision-making protocol that simulated avoidance of unintended doping. Hierarchical linear multiple regression analyses revealed that self-control was negatively associated with doping attitude and intention, and positively associated with the intention and adherence to doping-avoidant behaviors, and refusal to take or eat the unfamiliar candy offered in the “lollipop” protocol. Consistent with the strength-energy model, athletes with low self-control were more likely to have heightened attitude and intention toward doping, and reduced intention, behavioral adherence, and awareness of doping avoidance.
Luke Felton and Sophia Jowett
The current study aimed to examine whether (a) mean differences and changes in athletes’ attachment style predicted psychological need satisfaction within two diverse relational contexts (coach and parent) and well-being, and (b) mean differences and changes in need satisfaction within the two relational contexts predicted well-being. One hundred and ten athletes aged between 15 and 32 years old completed a multisection questionnaire at three time points over a span of 6 months to assess the main study variables. Multilevel modeling revealed that insecure attachment styles (anxious and avoidant) predicted well-being outcomes at the within- and between-person levels. Avoidant attachment predicted need satisfaction within the parent relational context at both levels, and need satisfaction within the coach relational context at the between-person level. Need satisfaction within both relational contexts predicted various well-being outcomes at the between-person level, while need satisfaction within the parent relational context predicted vitality at the within-person level.
Louise Davis, Sophia Jowett, and Marc-André K. Lafrenière
The aim of the current study was to examine actor and partner effects of (a) athletes’ and coaches’ attachment styles (avoidant and anxious) on the quality of the coach-athlete relationship, and (b) athletes’ and coaches’ quality of the coach-athlete relationship on relationship satisfaction employing the actor-partner interdependence model (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006). Coaches (N = 107) and athletes (N = 107) completed a questionnaire related to attachment styles, relationship quality, and relationship satisfaction. Structural equation model analyses revealed (a) actor effects for coaches’ and athletes’ avoidant attachment styles on their own perception of relationship quality and coaches’ and athletes’ perception of relationship quality on their own perception of relationship satisfaction, and (b) partner effects for athletes’ avoidant attachment style on coaches’ perceptions of relationship quality and for coaches’ perceptions of relationship quality on athletes’ perceptions of relationship satisfaction. The findings highlight that attachments styles can help us understand the processes involved in the formation and maintenance of quality relational bonds between coaches and athletes.
Ece Bekaroglu and Özlem Bozo
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between attachment styles, emotion regulation strategies, and their possible effects on health-promoting behaviors among those who participate (N = 109) versus those who do not participate in extreme sports (N = 202). Multiple mediation analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses. Different nonadaptive emotion regulation strategies mediated the relationship between insecure attachment styles and health-promoting behaviors in two groups of the current study. In the extreme sports group, lack of awareness about emotions and lack of goals while dealing with negative emotions mediated the relationship between anxious attachment style and health-promoting behaviors; and lack of goals while dealing with negative emotions mediated the relationship between avoidant attachment style and health-promoting behaviors. In participants who do not engage in extreme sports, lack of clarity about emotions mediated the relationship between anxious attachment style and health-promoting behaviors. Findings and their implications were discussed in the light of the literature.
Brian V. Gallagher and Frank L. Gardner
The present study examined the relationship between cognitive vulnerabilities, coping strategy, and emotional response to athletic injury among 40 NCAA Division I injured athletes. It was hypothesized that the presence of early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and avoidant coping strategies would predict greater emotional distress among injured athletes. Early maladaptive schemas were assessed by the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form, which injured athletes completed upon injury. Coping strategies were measured by the Coping Response Inventory Adult Form, which was completed upon the completion of recovery. The Profile of Mood States was used to assess mood, and was completed during three phases of injury: upon injury, middle of rehabilitation, and upon recovery. As predicted, hierarchical multiple regression analysis demonstrate that EMSs and avoidance-focused coping were associated with higher levels of negative mood among injured athletes. The results also indicate that the relationship between EMS and mood vary based on the phase of injury, suggesting that different EMSs are differentially related to subtle differences in stressors encountered during each phase of the injury process.
Louise Davis and Sophia Jowett
Grounded in Bowlby’s (1969/1982, 1988) attachment theory, this study aimed to explore (a) the pervasiveness of the three main functions of attachment within the context of the coach-athlete relationship, (b) the associations of athletes’ attachment styles with such important variables as satisfaction with the relationship and satisfaction with the sport, and (c) the process by which athletes’ attachment styles and satisfaction with sport are associated. Data were collected through self-report measures of attachment functions and styles as well as relationship satisfaction and sport satisfaction from 309 student athletes (males = 150, females = 159) whose age ranged from 18 to 28 years (Mage = 19.9, SD = 1.58 years). Athletes’ mean scores indicated that the coach was viewed as an attachment figure fulfilling all three functions of secure base, safe haven, and proximity maintenance. Bivariate correlations indicated that athletes’ avoidant and anxious styles of attachment with the coach were negatively correlated with both relationship satisfaction and sport satisfaction. Mediational regression analysis revealed that athletes’ satisfaction with the coach-athlete relationship may be a process that links athletes’ attachment styles with levels of satisfaction with sport. The findings from this study highlight the potential theoretical and practical utility of attachment theory in studying relationships within the sport context.
Christopher P. Connolly, James M. Pivarnik, Lanay M. Mudd, Deborah L. Feltz, Rebecca A. Schlaff, Mark G. Lewis, Robert M. Silver, and Maria K. Lapinski
Pregnancy risk perceptions and physical activity efficacy beliefs may facilitate or impede pregnancy leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). We examined the separate and joint influence of these variables on LTPA behavior among pregnant women.
Pregnant women (n = 302) completed a survey containing questions on LTPA efficacy beliefs and behavior, as well as pregnancy risk perceptions with respect to the health of the unborn baby. As stipulated by the Risk Perception Attitude (RPA) Framework, 4 attitudinal groups were created: Responsive (High Risk+High Efficacy), Proactive (Low+High), Avoidant (High+Low), and Indifferent (Low+Low). Moderate LTPA and vigorous LTPA were dichotomized for study analyses.
A total of 82 women (27.2%) met the moderate physical activity guideline and 90 women (30.1%) performed any vigorous LTPA. Responsive and proactive pregnant women (those with high efficacy) were most likely to meet the moderate guideline and participate in vigorous LTPA. Hierarchical logistic regression did not reveal an interactive effect of pregnancy risk perceptions and LTPA efficacy beliefs for meeting the moderate guideline (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.66–1.36) or any vigorous LTPA participation (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 0.86–2.29).
LTPA efficacy beliefs appear important in facilitating greater levels of pregnancy LTPA. Significant interactive effects between pregnancy risk perceptions and LTPA efficacy beliefs were not found.
Christina M. Patch, Caterina G. Roman, Terry L. Conway, Ralph B. Taylor, Kavita A. Gavand, Brian E. Saelens, Marc A. Adams, Kelli L. Cain, Jessa K. Engelberg, Lauren Mayes, Scott C. Roesch, and James F. Sallis
microlevel concept, include 4 main constructs: protective behaviors, avoidant behaviors, community participation, and obligatory behaviors. The construct of “no behavioral response” captures the null set, that is, participants who report that they do not engage in any of these behaviors in response to crime