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Valerie Gladwell, Samantha Head, Martin Haggar and Ralph Beneke

Objective:

To evaluate the effect of a program of modified Pilates for active individuals with chronic non-specific low back pain.

Design:

A single blind randomized controlled trial.

Participants:

49 individuals with chronic low back pain were randomly allocated to control (n = 24) or Pilates group (n = 25). Thirty-four individuals completed the study (14 and 20 individuals for control and Pilates group, respectively).

Intervention:

The Pilates group undertook a six week program of Pilates. Both groups continued with normal activity.

Main Outcome Measures:

An assessor blinded to group allocation conducted functional and questionnaire-based assessments pre- and post- intervention.

Results:

Improvements were seen in the Pilates group post- intervention period with increases (P < 0.05) in general health, sports functioning, flexibility, proprioception, and a decrease in pain. The control group showed no significant differences in the same measures post- intervention.

Conclusions:

These data suggest that Pilates used as a specific core stability exercise incorporating functional movements can improve non-specific chronic low back pain in an active population compared to no intervention. Additionally, Pilates can improve general health, pain level, sports functioning, flexibility, and proprioception in individuals with chronic low back pain.

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Amity Campbell, Leon Straker, David Whiteside, Peter O’Sullivan, Bruce Elliott and Machar Reid

Adolescent tennis players are at risk for low back pain (LBP). Recent research has demonstrated a potential mechanical etiology during serves; however, groundstrokes have also been suggested to load this region. Therefore, this study compared lumbar mechanics between players with and without a history of LBP during open and square stance tennis forehands and backhands. Nineteen elite, adolescent, male tennis players participated, 7 with a history of recurrent disabling LBP and 12 without. Differences in three-dimensional lumbar kinetics and kinematics were compared between pain/no pain groups and groundstrokes using linear mixed models (P < .01). There were no significant differences between pain/no pain groups. Relative to a right-handed player, groundstroke comparisons revealed that forehands had greater racquet velocity, greater lumbar right lateral flexion force, as well as upper lumbar extension/rightward rotation and lower lumbar right rotation/lateral flexion movements that were closer to or further beyond end of range than backhands. Backhands required upper lumbar leftward rotation that was beyond end range, while forehands did not. Given that players typically rotated near to their end of range during the backswing of both forehands and backhands, independent of pain, groundstrokes may contribute to the cumulative strain linked to LBP in tennis players.

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Yuko Hashimoto, Ko Matsudaira, Susumu S. Sawada, Yuko Gando, Ryoko Kawakami, Chihiro Kinugawa, Takashi Okamoto, Koji Tsukamoto, Motohiko Miyachi, Hisashi Naito and Steven N. Blair

Low back pain is currently a significant health problem worldwide. The Global Burden of Disease Study reported that low back pain was the largest contributor to years living with disability. 1 In Japan, a study showed that low back pain was the leading cause (65%) of musculoskeletal chronic pain 2

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David M. Kahler

The complaint of persistent low back pain in an athlete is usually related to an identifiable structural disorder. As with all other medical conditions, effective treatment relies on an accurate diagnosis. Certain sporting activities are associated with characteristic acquired lesions; this knowledge, when combined with a thorough history and physical examination, will often dictate when the clinician should refer an athlete for further testing. Most causes of back pain in athletes can be treated nonsurgically if they are identified early and treated appropriately. The common congenital abnormalities, acquired conditions, and overuse syndromes causing low back pain in athletes will be discussed, along with appropriate diagnostic tests and treatment regimens.

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Melissa E. Hay and Denise M. Connelly

of our body when the unity of our existence in the world is broken. ( van Manen, 1998 , p. 6) People living with health issues, such as chronic back pain, do not have the luxury of “forgetting” or passing over the nature of the self as an embodied being ( van Manen, 1998 ). Instead, chronic pain

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Fabianna R. de Jesus-Moraleida, Paulo H. Ferreira, Juscelio P. Silva, André G.P. Andrade, Rosangela C. Dias, João Marcos D. Dias, Marcella G. Assis and Leani S.M. Pereira

Low back pain (LBP) is the most disabling musculoskeletal condition experienced by the aging population ( Hoy et al., 2014 ; Macfarlane et al., 2012 ). However, researchers are still in the beginning of exploring the characteristics of LBP associated with this age group. A recent study showed that

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Kaitlyn C. Jones, Evelyn C. Tocco, Ashley N. Marshall, Tamara C. Valovich McLeod and Cailee E. Welch Bacon

Clinical Scenario Low back pain (LBP) is widely prevalent in the general population as well as in athletics. Though the prevalence is variable depending on the sport, up to 94% of the athletic population will have LBP over their lifetime. 1 Chronic nonspecific LBP (NS-LBP) is defined as idiopathic

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TaeYeong Kim, JaeHyuk Lee, SeJun Oh, Seungmin Kim and BumChul Yoon

The prevalence of nonspecific low back pain (LBP) is 80%. 1 Over half of individuals with nonspecific LBP will experience chronic symptoms lasting longer than 1 year, and these symptoms result in high health care costs. 2 Effective management to reduce pain intensity and to prevent a chronic pain

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Daniel Viggiani and Jack P. Callaghan

Low back pain (LBP) continues to be a burden on society 1 , 2 despite increasing knowledge on the topic. Identifying homogenous groups of LBP patients is necessary to reduce the inconsistency or variability in findings regarding factors affecting the causes, identifiers, and treatments of LBP. 3

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Fatemeh Azadinia, Ismail Ebrahimi-Takamjani, Mojtaba Kamyab, Morteza Asgari and Mohamad Parnianpour

back pain (LBP; Karimi, Ebrahimi, Kahrizi, & Torkaman, 2008 ; Ruhe et al., 2011a ; Schelldorfer et al., 2015 ; Yahia et al., 2011 ). Although the mechanism leading to poor postural stability in these patients is still unclear, several factors have been proposed to play a role, such as pain