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Ece Acar, Tamer Çankaya and Serkan Öner

improving balance in older adults: A systematic review with meta-analysis . Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 96 ( 4 ), 715 – 723 . PubMed ID: 25511371 doi:10.1016/j.apmr.2014.11.021 10.1016/j.apmr.2014.11.021 Borreani , S. , Calatayud , J. , Martin , J. , Colado , J.C. , Tella

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George Sofianidis, Anna-Maria Dimitriou and Vassilia Hatzitaki

sway reduction noted during single-limb standing could be partly attributed to the improved strength of the ankle muscles induced by both training programs. Overall, our results confirmed the hypothesis that both (DG, PG) exercise programs improve static balance in older adults during both tandem and

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Cristina Jácome, Joana Cruz, Raquel Gabriel, Daniela Figueiredo and Alda Marques

This study assessed functional balance among older adults at all grades of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and explored balance impairment predictors. A cross-sectional study with outpatients with COPD (N = 160; M = 72.2 years, SD = 7.9; mean forced expiratory volume in 1 s = 63.8% predicted, SD = 23.7) was conducted. The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was used to assess functional balance. Functional balance impairment was defined as a TUG score exceeding the upper limit of the confidence intervals of normative values for healthy older adults. Participants performed the TUG test in 11.0 s (SD = 4.8 s). Functional balance impairment was present in 44.4% of the participants and was significantly more frequent in severe to very severe COPD (62.5%). Body mass index (odds ratio [OR] = 1.12), number of medications (OR = 1.20), restriction in recreational activities (OR = 1.66), and depression score (OR = 1.14) were multivariate predictors of functional balance impairment. Functional balance impairment is present in early COPD, although more evident at advanced grades. These findings highlight the importance of balance assessment in older patients at all COPD grades.

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Susan Dewhurst, Leslie Peacock and Theodoros M. Bampouras

Physical activity assists older individuals’ functional ability and postural stability. Recently, Scottish country dance (SCD) was reported as being a beneficial form of physical activity for functional ability in older females. This study aims to examine the effect of SCD on postural stability. Scottish country dancers (n = 20) were compared with physically active controls (n = 33) for static postural sway measured on a force platform. The Romberg and Tandem stances were used under ‘eyes open’ and ‘eyes closed’ conditions. Ninety-five percent ellipse area and sway velocity were calculated from the center of pressure displacement. Ninety-five percent ellipse area was the same for both groups in all tests. The control group had greater sway velocity for all tests (P < .01) except Tandem eyes closed. SCD participation resulted in similar postural sway as participation in other physical activities, however nondancers may need a greater amount of regulatory activity to maintain balance.

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Anis Kamoun, Omar Hammouda, Abdelmoneem Yahia, Oussema Dhari, Houcem Ksentini, Tarak Driss, Nizar Souissi and Mohamed Habib Elleuch

Alpini et al. ( 2004 ) have proved that lack of MEL levels leads to vestibular impairment and balance disturbance ( Alpini et al., 2004 ), few researches have tested the potential effect of MEL on postural balance in older adults. Previous studies have proved that acute evening MEL (2 mg) ingestion did

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Brian M. Moore, Joseph T. Adams, Sallie Willcox and Joseph Nicholson

& Lockhart, 2010 ). Three studies included women only ( Grabiner et al., 2012 ; Nascimento de Sousa et al., 2013 ; Rossi et al., 2014 ). Table 1 Characteristics of Included Studies—Reactive Balance in Older Adults Study Participants Control/comparison intervention Experimental intervention Dosage Outcomes

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Luca Petrigna, Ambra Gentile, Diba Mani, Simona Pajaujiene, Tobia Zanotto, Ewan Thomas, Antonio Paoli, Antonio Palma and Antonino Bianco

methods for meta-analysis (pp.  75 – 106) . San Diego, CA : Academic Press . 10.1016/B978-0-08-057065-5.50010-5 Heiden , E. , & Lajoie , Y. ( 2010 ). Games-based biofeedback training and the attentional demands of balance in older adults . Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 22 ( 5

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Wolfram Haslinger, Lisa Müller, Nejc Sarabon, Christian Raschner, Helmut Kern and Stefan Löfler

Objective:

To determine the effectiveness of exercise in improving sensorimotor function and functional performance, crucial parts of activities of daily living in healthy older adults.

Design:

RCT.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Participants:

39 subjects (M = 71.8 years, range: 61–89 years).

Intervention:

Task-oriented visual feedback balance training.

Primary outcome measure:

Timed Up & Go (TUG).

Secondary outcome measures:

Chair stand test (CST), self-paced walk test, maximum isometric torque, quiet stand posturography, and dynamic balance (DB).

Results:

Postintervention comparison of the treatment group (TG) and control group (CG) showed better TUG (p < .01), CST (p < .001), and DB (p < .025) for the TG. Pre–post intervention comparison of the TG showed better clinically-relevant outcomes in TUG (p < .001), CST (p < .001), and DB (p < .001).

Conclusion:

Active driven visual feedback balance training is effective in improving functional performance and dynamic balance in older adults.

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Hwang-Jae Lee, Won Hyuk Chang, Sun Hee Hwang, Byung-Ok Choi, Gyu-Ha Ryu and Yun-Hee Kim

The purpose of this study was to examine age-related gait characteristics and their associations with balance function in older adults. A total of 51 adult volunteers participated. All subjects underwent locomotion analysis using a 3D motion analysis and 12-channel dynamic electromyography system. Dynamic balance function was assessed by the Berg Balance Scale. Older adults showed a higher level of muscle activation than young adults, and there were significant positive correlations between increased age and activation of the trunk and thigh muscles in the stance and swing phase of the gait cycle. In particular, back extensor muscle activity was mostly correlated with the dynamic balance in older adults. Thus, back extensor muscle activity in walking may provide a clue for higher falling risk in older adults. This study demonstrates that the back extensor muscles play very important roles with potential for rehabilitation training to improve balance and gait in older adults.

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N. Füsun Toraman, Alparslan Erman and Evren Agyar

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 9-week supervised multicomponent exercise program on functional fitness and body composition in independent older adults. Forty-two adults age 60–86 years were randomly assigned to an exercise or a control group and were evaluated before and after training. The training program consisted of 3 sessions of walking, strengthening, and flexibility exercises per week. The multicomponent training program resulted in significant (p < .005) improvements on the chair stand, arm curl, 6-min walk, and up-and-go tests. The findings of this study indicate that a 9-week training program increased upper and lower body strength, aerobic endurance, and agility/dynamic balance in older adults. The most affected components of functional fitness were lower body strength and aerobic endurance. There was no effect of the 9-week training on body composition.