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Jupil Ko, Erik Wikstrom, Yumeng Li, Michelle Weber, and Cathleen N. Brown

Balance impairments are linked to an increased risk of injury in those with a history of a lateral ankle sprain and chronic ankle instability (CAI). 1 , 2 The Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) is one of the most common dynamic balance tests used to identify balance deficits in individuals with

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Jason P. Mihalik, Elizabeth F. Teel, Robert C. Lynall, and Erin B. Wasserman

Key Points ▸ Balance Error Scoring System scores were worse while wearing skates. ▸ Balance Error Scoring System scores (traditional and skates) were only moderately correlated. ▸ The Balance Error Scoring System (traditional and skates) had low overall reliability. Over 1 million youth athletes

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Eamon T. Campolettano, Gunnar Brolinson, and Steven Rowson

nervous system. 13 , 14 In collegiate populations, short-term learning impairments and balance deficits have been observed even for nonconcussed players. 15 , 16 Following exposure to head impacts, the most commonly implemented balance testing protocol used by healthcare providers in the care of

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George Sofianidis, Anna-Maria Dimitriou, and Vassilia Hatzitaki

Balance control during static and dynamic activities is an important element of daily function in old age. Degenerative changes that occur with aging result in reduced sensory perception of the environment and the body (vision, kinesthesia, labyrinth), reduced speed of information processing by the

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Aimee E. Roth, Michael G. Miller, Marc Ricard, Donna Ritenour, and Brenda L. Chapman


It has been theorized that aquatic balance training differs from land balance training.


To compare the effects of balance training in aquatic and land environments.


Between-groups, repeated-measures design.


Biomechanics laboratory and pool.


24 healthy subjects randomly assigned to aquatic (n = 8), land (n = 10), or control (n = 6) groups.


Four weeks of balance training.

Main Outcome Measures:

Balance was measured (pre, mid, post, follow-up). COP variables: radial area, y range, x range in single leg (SL), tandem (T), single leg foam (SLF), and tandem form (TF) stance.


A significant condition × time interaction for x range was found, with improvements for SL, SLF, and TF. Radial area improved, with post-test 1.01 ± .23 cm2 and follow-up 1.06 ± .18 cm2 significantly lower than pretest 1.18 ± .23 cm2. Y range significantly improved, with posttest (4.69 ± 1.02 cm2) lower than pretest (5.89 ± 1.26 cm2). The foam conditions (SLF & TF) were significantly different from non-foam conditions (SL & T) for all variables.


Results of this study show that balance training can effectively be performed in both land and aquatic environments.

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Chung-Chao Liang, Qi-Xing Change, Yu-Chou Hung, Chizan-Chung Chen, Chun-Hsiang Lin, Yu-Chun Wei, and Jia-Ching Chen

aging populations ( Department of Information Services, Executive Yuan, 2015 ). Evidence has suggested that physical performance and balance decline with age ( Auyeung, Lee, Leung, Kwok, & Woo, 2014 ; Ishizaki et al., 2011 ; Wang, Yeh, Wang, Wang, & Lin, 2011 ). Declining mobility and low levels of

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I-Chieh Lee, Yeou-Teh Liu, and Karl M. Newell

We investigated the coordination of balance and propulsion processes in learning to ride a unicycle through a principal component analysis (PCA) of the nature and number of functional degrees of freedom (DOF) in the movement coordination patterns. Six participants practiced unicycle riding on an indoor track for 28 sessions over separate days. The movement time and performance outcomes were recorded for each trial and body segment kinematics were collected from the first and every succeeding 4th session. The first appearance of no-hand-support performance varied across participants from the 5th practice session to the 22nd session. The PCA showed that initially in practice the 39 kinematic time series could be represented by 6–9 components that were reduced over practice to 4–7 components. The loadings of the PCA that reflected balance and propulsion processes became more coupled as a function of successfully riding the unicycle. The findings support the proposition that learning to ride the unicycle is a process of making the system more controllable by coordinating balance and propulsion while mastering the redundant DOF.

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Christina Davlin-Pater

This study investigated the influence of visual cues and perceptual style on static and dynamic balance performance. Twenty-five field dependent (FD) and twenty-five field independent (FI) participants performed tests of static and dynamic balance under five different vision conditions. Balance performance was measured using the Biodex Balance System. The vision conditions included: eyes open with visual feedback (EOFB), without visual feedback (EOEC), viewing lines tilted 18° (EOTL), eyes open without any visual cues (EONC), and eyes closed (EC). All participants were more stable when visual cues were present. Results revealed no significant difference between the two groups on the static balance task in any of the vision conditions. A significant difference was found between the two groups on the dynamic balance task. In three of the vision conditions (EOFB, EOEC, EOTL), the FI group was found to be more stable than the FD group. Movement of the body required during a dynamic balance task generates vestibular and somatosensory information which FI individuals may be more efficient in translating into greater stability as compared with FD individuals.

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Christopher J. Hasson, Richard E.A. van Emmerik, and Graham E. Caldwell

In this study, a comprehensive evaluation of static and dynamic balance abilities was performed in young and older adults and regression analysis was used to test whether age-related variations in individual ankle muscle mechanical properties could explain differences in balance performance. The mechanical properties included estimates of the maximal isometric force capability, force-length, force-velocity, and series elastic properties of the dorsiflexors and individual plantarflexor muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus). As expected, the older adults performed more poorly on most balance tasks. Muscular maximal isometric force, optimal fiber length, tendon slack length, and velocity-dependent force capabilities accounted for up to 60% of the age-related variation in performance on the static and dynamic balance tests. In general, the plantarflexors had a stronger predictive role than the dorsiflexors. Plantarflexor stiffness was strongly related to general balance performance, particularly in quiet stance; but this effect did not depend on age. Together, these results suggest that age-related differences in balance performance are explained in part by alterations in muscular mechanical properties.

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Vaughan Patrick Nicholson, Mark McKean, John Lowe, Christine Fawcett, and Brendan Burkett


To determine the effectiveness of unsupervised Nintendo Wii Fit balance training in older adults.


Forty-one older adults were recruited from local retirement villages and educational settings to participate in a six-week two-group repeated measures study. The Wii group (n = 19, 75 ± 6 years) undertook 30 min of unsupervised Wii balance gaming three times per week in their retirement village while the comparison group (n = 22, 74 ± 5 years) continued with their usual exercise program. Participants’ balance abilities were assessed pre- and postintervention.


The Wii Fit group demonstrated significant improvements (P < .05) in timed up-and-go, left single-leg balance, lateral reach (left and right), and gait speed compared with the comparison group. Reported levels of enjoyment following game play increased during the study.


Six weeks of unsupervised Wii balance training is an effective modality for improving balance in independent older adults.