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Annamari Maaranen, Judy L. Van Raalte, and Britton W. Brewer

mentally “blocked” ( Day et al., 2006 ; Maaranen et al., 2017 ). Some athletes are able to perform the skills temporarily (up to a few times) when something about the environment is modified to reduce the potential negative consequences of balking, such as when using a spotter ( Maaranen et al., 2017

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Annamari Maaranen, Erica G. Beachy, Judy L. Van Raalte, Britton W. Brewer, Thaddeus J. France, and Albert J. Petitpas

Mental blocks, phenomena in which athletes lose the ability to perform previously automatic skills, are well known but poorly understood. Study 1 was designed to assess mental blocks in gymnastics and determine if such blocks are distinct from related conditions, such as slumps, choking, and fear of injury. Mental blocks were reported to have unique characteristics and to affect backward moving skills. Study 2 was a qualitative analysis of the experiences of 5 gymnasts currently experiencing mental blocks on backward moving skills. Such block is called flikikammo and was described as cycling on and off, spreading to other events and skills, affecting visualization, and worsening when performance of the affected skills was forced by coaches. The findings are the first to detail the experience of gymnasts currently experiencing the condition. Additional research may help identify ways to alleviate and/or prevent flikikammo.

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Yannick A. Balk, Marieke A. Adriaanse, Denise T.D. de Ridder, and Catharine Evers

Performing under high pressure is an emotional experience. Hence, the use of emotion regulation strategies may prove to be highly effective in preventing choking under pressure. Using a golf putting task, we investigated the role of arousal on declined sport performance under pressure (pilot study) and the effectiveness of emotion regulation strategies in alleviating choking under pressure (main study). The pilot study showed that pressure resulted in decreased performance and this effect was partially mediated by increased arousal. The main study, a field study, showed that whereas the choking effect was observed in the control condition, reappraisal and, particularly, distraction were effective emotion regulation strategies in helping people to cope instead of choke under pressure. These findings suggest that interventions that aim to prevent choking under pressure could benefit from including emotion regulation strategies.

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Response Conflict Keita Kamijo * Yuji Takeda * 8 2013 35 4 398 407 10.1123/jsep.35.4.398 Coping Under Pressure: Employing Emotion Regulation Strategies to Enhance Performance Under Pressure Yannick A. Balk * Marieke A. Adriaanse * Denise T.D. de Ridder * Catharine Evers * 8 2013 35 4 408 418 10

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Keith Tolfrey, Julia Kirstey Zakrzewski-Fruer, and Alice Emily Thackray

. This would help to inform combined PA and dietary approaches to prevent the development of chronic disease in young people. References 1. Balk EM , Earley A , Raman G , Avendano EA , Pittas AG , Remington PL . Combined diet and physical activity promotion programs to prevent type 2

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Melissa Davies, Michael L. Naraine, and Brandon Mastromartino

largest in the United States ( Balk, 2018 ). Since the 1980s, the area has seen a boom in the technology industry, most notably with software giant Microsoft establishing a headquarters in the region. The area is also known for its deep music roots as it is the hometown of guitar legend Jimi Hendrix and

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Ralph Appleby, Paul Davis, Louise Davis, and Henrik Gustafsson

To be successful in competitive sport, athletes are required to invest hours of intense training and perform effectively under pressure ( Balk, Adriaanse, De Ridder, & Evers, 2013 ; Isoard-Gautheur, Guillet-Descas, & Gustafsson, 2016 ). Furthermore, athletes are required to manage stressors

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Karen S. Meaney and Sonya L. Armstrong

education often balk at conversations that start with policy, the reality is that most policy is created in reaction to a previous inaction. That is certainly the issue here, as well. As Pyke ( 2018 ) noted, this type of inaction, referred to as institutional betrayal, encompasses “the wrongdoings and harm

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Leila Ahmadnezhad, Ali Yalfani, and Behnam Gholami Borujeni

analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences . Behav Res Methods . 2007 ; 39 ( 2 ): 175 – 191 . PubMed ID: 17695343 doi:10.3758/BF03193146 17695343 10.3758/BF03193146 12. Boonstra AM , Preuper HR , Balk GA , Stewart RE . Cut-off points for mild, moderate, and severe

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Nicholas Stanger, Ryan Chettle, Jessica Whittle, and Jamie Poolton

feel excited to perform against our rivals.” Accordingly, research has indicated that reappraisal can be an effective way for players to cope (e.g., Balk, Adriaanse, De Ridder, & Evers, 2013 ) and perform better (e.g., Brooks, 2014 ) under pressure. Reappraisal may also influence relationships