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Annamari Maaranen, Judy L. Van Raalte, and Britton W. Brewer

mentally “blocked” ( Day et al., 2006 ; Maaranen et al., 2017 ). Some athletes are able to perform the skills temporarily (up to a few times) when something about the environment is modified to reduce the potential negative consequences of balking, such as when using a spotter ( Maaranen et al., 2017

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Annamari Maaranen, Erica G. Beachy, Judy L. Van Raalte, Britton W. Brewer, Thaddeus J. France, and Albert J. Petitpas

Mental blocks, phenomena in which athletes lose the ability to perform previously automatic skills, are well known but poorly understood. Study 1 was designed to assess mental blocks in gymnastics and determine if such blocks are distinct from related conditions, such as slumps, choking, and fear of injury. Mental blocks were reported to have unique characteristics and to affect backward moving skills. Study 2 was a qualitative analysis of the experiences of 5 gymnasts currently experiencing mental blocks on backward moving skills. Such block is called flikikammo and was described as cycling on and off, spreading to other events and skills, affecting visualization, and worsening when performance of the affected skills was forced by coaches. The findings are the first to detail the experience of gymnasts currently experiencing the condition. Additional research may help identify ways to alleviate and/or prevent flikikammo.

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Yannick A. Balk, Marieke A. Adriaanse, Denise T.D. de Ridder, and Catharine Evers

Performing under high pressure is an emotional experience. Hence, the use of emotion regulation strategies may prove to be highly effective in preventing choking under pressure. Using a golf putting task, we investigated the role of arousal on declined sport performance under pressure (pilot study) and the effectiveness of emotion regulation strategies in alleviating choking under pressure (main study). The pilot study showed that pressure resulted in decreased performance and this effect was partially mediated by increased arousal. The main study, a field study, showed that whereas the choking effect was observed in the control condition, reappraisal and, particularly, distraction were effective emotion regulation strategies in helping people to cope instead of choke under pressure. These findings suggest that interventions that aim to prevent choking under pressure could benefit from including emotion regulation strategies.

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Keith Tolfrey, Julia Kirstey Zakrzewski-Fruer, and Alice Emily Thackray

. This would help to inform combined PA and dietary approaches to prevent the development of chronic disease in young people. References 1. Balk EM , Earley A , Raman G , Avendano EA , Pittas AG , Remington PL . Combined diet and physical activity promotion programs to prevent type 2

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Jolan Kegelaers, Paul Wylleman, I. (Belle) N.A. van Bree, Francesco Wessels, and Raôul R.D. Oudejans

( Chroni, Abrahamsen, Skille, & Hemmestad, 2019 ). Safeguarding their mental health and well-being is not only important for coaches themselves, but might, in turn, also impact athletes’ functioning and well-being ( Balk, de Jonge, Geurts, & Oerlemans, 2019 ; Thelwell, Wagstaff, Chapman, & Kenttä, 2017

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Georgia A. Bird, Mary L. Quinton, and Jennifer Cumming

to control intrusive thoughts and anxiety ( Balk et al., 2013 ; Martinent et al., 2015 ), whereas uses of expressive suppression were found to inhibit performance ( Wagstaff, 2014 ). Sport is a demanding and stressful environment in which athletes experience many emotions during training and

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Melissa Davies, Michael L. Naraine, and Brandon Mastromartino

largest in the United States ( Balk, 2018 ). Since the 1980s, the area has seen a boom in the technology industry, most notably with software giant Microsoft establishing a headquarters in the region. The area is also known for its deep music roots as it is the hometown of guitar legend Jimi Hendrix and

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Eduardo Takeuchi, Shirley S. Lacerda, Guilherme Carlos Brech, and Elisa H. Kozasa

the state of presence. In other words, MED training has a direct effect on the behavioral aspects, the body, and the performance improvement ( Balk et al., 2013 ; Chen & Meggs, 2020 ; Kaufmann et al., 2009 ; Ortner et al., 2007 ). In the COAs, Takeuchi chose not to use specific assessments of

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Ralph Appleby, Paul Davis, Louise Davis, and Henrik Gustafsson

To be successful in competitive sport, athletes are required to invest hours of intense training and perform effectively under pressure ( Balk, Adriaanse, De Ridder, & Evers, 2013 ; Isoard-Gautheur, Guillet-Descas, & Gustafsson, 2016 ). Furthermore, athletes are required to manage stressors

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Sanna M. Nordin-Bates, Martin Aldoson, and Charlotte Downing

self-regulation and is positively correlated with successful athletic outcomes ( Balk & Englert, 2020 ). Hard Yet Flexible Work As Petra’s goals were important to her and because she acknowledged the standards needed to reach them, her striving for perfection was characterized by hard work: “I … would