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Shohei Shibata, Yuki Inaba, Shinsuke Yoshioka, and Senshi Fukashiro

with ball velocity. Although this result supports the expectation that shoulder, elbow, and wrist movement and torque are significant factors in adjusting ball velocity, the role of the fingers in adjusting ball velocity during ball throwing has not been clarified. Researchers have measured the force

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Osamu Yanagisawa, Kenta Wakamatsu, and Hidenori Taniguchi

and strength 17 , 20 for professional and college baseball pitchers. Therefore, the hip functional characteristics of baseball pitchers should be further investigated. Ball velocity is a determinant factor that strongly influences pitching performance. In previous studies, greater forces generated

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Matthew J. Solomito, Andrew D. Cohen, Erin J. Garibay, and Carl W. Nissen

efficiently transfer energy from each preceding segment in order to be both accurate and produce high ball velocities. 16 – 19 Understanding the complexities of the pitching motion has created a shift in the biomechanical evaluation of baseball pitchers from an arm-centric model to one that incorporates the

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Alanna Weisberg, Hyun Suk Lee, Tak Fung, and Larry Katz

& Salter, 2007 ; Sterkowicz et al., 2010 ). For example, Maddigan et al. ( 2014 ) examined the effect of a bilateral low-resistance, high-velocity training on ball velocity in 13 female university students. An experimental group participated in nine sessions (three times a week for 3 weeks), which

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Hideyuki Ishii, Toshio Yanagiya, Hisashi Naito, Shizuo Katamoto, and Takeo Maruyama

The objective of this study was to investigate the factors affecting ball velocity at the final instant of the impact phase (t 1) in full instep soccer kicking. Five experienced male university soccer players performed maximal full instep kicks for various foot impact points using a one-step approach. The kicking motions were captured two dimensionally by a high-speed camera at 2,500 fps. The theoretical equation of the ball velocity at t 1 given in the article was derived based on the impact dynamics theory. The validity of the theoretical equation was verified by comparing the theoretical relationship between the impact point and the ball velocity with the experimental one. Using this theoretical equation, the relationship between the impact point and the ball velocity was simulated. The simulation results indicated that the ball velocity is more strongly affected by the foot velocity at the initial instant of the impact phase than by other factors. The simulation results also indicated that decreasing the ankle joint reaction force during ball impact shifts the impact point that produces the greatest ball velocity to the toe side and decreasing the ankle joint torque during ball impact shifts the impact point that produces the greatest ball velocity to the ankle side.

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Herbert Wagner, Matthias Hinz, Patrick Fuchs, Jeffrey W. Bell, and Serge P. von Duvillard

anthropometrics (body size and weight), jump height, and ball velocity in the jump shot as well as sprinting performance. Materials and Methods Subjects Twelve elite male less than 23 years of age (9 [13.5 h] trainings per week; 4 wings, 6 backcourt players, 2 pivots; 4 left-handed and 8 right-handed players), 10

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Adam M. Fullenkamp, Brian M. Campbell, C. Matthew Laurent, and Amanda Paige Lane

To date, biomechanical analyses of soccer kicking have focused predominantly on lower-extremity motions, with little emphasis on the trunk and upper body. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in trunk axial kinematics between novice (n = 10) and skilled (n = 10) participants, as well as to establish the relationship of trunk axial motion and sagittal plane thigh rotation to poststrike ball velocity. Three-dimensional body segmental motion data were captured using high-resolution motion analysis (120 Hz) while each participant completed 5 maximal instep soccer-style kicks. The results demonstrate that skilled participants use 53% greater axial trunk range of motion compared with novice participants (P < .01), as well as 62% greater peak trunk rotation velocity (P < .01). The results also show a moderate, positive correlation of peak trunk rotation velocity with poststrike ball velocity (r = .57; P < .01), and peak hip flexion velocity with poststrike ball velocity (r = .63; P < .01). The current study highlights the potential for trunk rotation-specific training to improve maximum instep kick velocity in developing soccer athletes.

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Todd A. McLoda, Kate M. Murphy, and Steve Davison


Inertial training of the shoulder.


To determine the differences of functional and EMG measures between a control group and an exercise group of overhead throwers.


Repeated measures.


Research laboratory.


17 intercollegiate baseball players and 19 intercollegiate softball players divided into 2 equal-size groups, control and exercise.

Main Outcome Measures:

Preliminary data were recorded, including throwing velocity, throwing accuracy, and EMG activity of the biceps brachii, upper pectorals, and posterior deltoid. The exercise group completed a 4-week training regimen on the Impulse Inertial Trainer. All participants returned for follow-up measures.


No significant group-by-time interaction occurred relative to ball velocity, accuracy, or EMG activity.


For experienced throwers, functional measures and muscle activity during throwing were not affected by inertial training of the upper extremity.

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Roland van den Tillaar and Gertjan Ettema

The aim of this study was to compare the kinematics in throwing with a regular weighted handball with 20% lighter and heavier balls in female experienced handball players. In total, eight joint movements during the throw were analyzed. The analysis consisted of maximal angles, angles at ball release, and maximal angular velocities of the joint movements and their timings during the throw. Results on 24 experienced female team handball players (mean age 18.2 ± 2.1 years) showed that the difference in ball weight affected the maximal ball velocity. The difference in ball release velocity was probably a result of the significant differences in kinematics of the major contributors to overarm throwing: elbow extension and internal rotation of the shoulder. These were altered when changing the ball weight, which resulted in differences in ball release velocity.

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Roland van den Tillaar and Gertjan Ettema

The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of upper extremity, trunk, and lower extremity movements in overarm throwing in team handball. In total, 11 joint movements during the throw were analyzed. The analysis consists of maximal angles, angles at ball release, and maximal angular velocities of the joint movements and their timing during the throw. Only the elbow angle (extension movement range) and the level of internal rotation velocity of the shoulder at ball release showed a significant relationship with the throwing performance. Also, a significant correlation was found for the timing of the maximal pelvis angle with ball velocity, indicating that better throwers started to rotate their pelvis forward earlier during the throw. No other significant correlations were found, indicating that the role of the trunk and lower limb are of minor importance for team handball players.