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Andrew Chappell, Sergio L. Molina, Jonathon McKibben and David F. Stodden

This study examined variability in kicking speed and spatial accuracy to test the impulse-variability theory prediction of an inverted-U function and the speed-accuracy trade-off. Twenty-eight 18- to 25-year-old adults kicked a playground ball at various percentages (50–100%) of their maximum speed at a wall target. Speed variability and spatial error were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA with built-in polynomial contrasts. Results indicated a significant inverse linear trajectory for speed variability (p < .001, η2= .345) where 50% and 60% maximum speed had significantly higher variability than the 100% condition. A significant quadratic fit was found for spatial error scores of mean radial error (p < .0001, η2 = .474) and subject-centroid radial error (p < .0001, η2 = .453). Findings suggest variability and accuracy of multijoint, ballistic skill performance may not follow the general principles of impulse-variability theory or the speed-accuracy trade-off.

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Sergio L. Molina and David F. Stodden

). Specifically, the speed-accuracy trade-off describes an inverse linear relationship between the speed of a movement and the accuracy of that movement. However, when examining the speed-accuracy trade-off in multijoint ballistic skills (e.g., throwing, kicking, and jumping), recent research does not support the

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M.A. Urbin, David Stodden, Rhonda Boros and David Shannon

The purpose of this study was to examine variability in overarm throwing velocity and spatial output error at various percentages of maximum to test the prediction of an inverted-U function as predicted by impulse-variability theory and a speed-accuracy trade-off as predicted by Fitts’ Law Thirty subjects (16 skilled, 14 unskilled) were instructed to throw a tennis ball at seven percentages of their maximum velocity (40–100%) in random order (9 trials per condition) at a target 30 feet away. Throwing velocity was measured with a radar gun and interpreted as an index of overall systemic power output. Within-subject throwing velocity variability was examined using within-subjects repeated-measures ANOVAs (7 repeated conditions) with built-in polynomial contrasts. Spatial error was analyzed using mixed model regression. Results indicated a quadratic fit with variability in throwing velocity increasing from 40% up to 60%, where it peaked, and then decreasing at each subsequent interval to maximum (p < .001, η2 = .555). There was no linear relationship between speed and accuracy. Overall, these data support the notion of an inverted-U function in overarm throwing velocity variability as both skilled and unskilled subjects approach maximum effort. However, these data do not support the notion of a speed-accuracy trade-off. The consistent demonstration of an inverted-U function associated with systemic power output variability indicates an enhanced capability to regulate aspects of force production and relative timing between segments as individuals approach maximum effort, even in a complex ballistic skill.

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Caterina Pesce, Ilaria Masci, Rosalba Marchetti, Giuseppe Vannozzi and Mirko Schmidt

higher perceived competence. Biomechanical Assessment With Inertial Measurement Units Forty-four children were stratified random subsampled for objective biomechanical assessment of one locomotor skill (running) and one ballistic skill (overarm throwing). After anthropometric characteristics of the

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Danielle Nesbitt, Sergio Molina, Ryan Sacko, Leah E. Robinson, Ali Brian and David Stodden

produces the most advanced movement pattern of ballistic skills ( Langendorfer, Roberton, & Stodden, 2013 ). Participant’s throwing, jumping, and hopping developmental sequences were analyzed and coded based upon previously established methods for these three skills ( Roberton & Halverson, 1984 , 1988

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Jane E. Clark, Farid Bardid, Nancy Getchell, Leah E. Robinson, Nadja Schott and Jill Whitall

revisited . Manuscript submitted for publication. Whiting , H.T.A. , & Cockerill , I.M. ( 1972 ). The development of a simple ballistic skill with and without visual control . Journal of Motor Behavior, 4 ( 3 ), 155 – 162 . PubMed ID: 23952593 doi: 10.1080/00222895.1972.10734931 . Wickstrom , R