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Johan Y.Y. Ng, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, and Nikos Ntoumanis

We examined motivation contagion in a hypothetical exercise setting. Exercise science students (n = 164) were provided with quotes of hypothetical male and female obese exercisers displaying different quality of motivation to start an exercise program. We used a 3 (exerciser motivation) × 2 (exerciser gender) × 2 (student gender) between-subjects experimental design to examine students’ (a) motivation to instruct, (b) interpersonal style, (c) perception of barrier efficacy of the exerciser, and (d) effort to identify factors that could maximize the effectiveness of an exercise program for the exerciser. Results showed that students displayed less controlled motivation and rated the exerciser as more capable of overcoming barriers to exercise when they perceived the exerciser to be autonomously motivated. However, students, particularly females, reported more autonomy support and invested more effort toward female exercisers with controlled motivation. Our findings indicate that motivation contagion effects are plausible in exercise settings and may affect interactions between fitness instructors and obese clients.

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Louise Foley, Harry Prapavessis, Ralph Maddison, Shauna Burke, Erin McGowan, and Lisa Gillanders

Two studies were conducted to predict physical activity in school-aged children. Study 1 tested the utility of an integrated model in predicting physical activity (PA) intention and behavior—the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and self-efficacy theory. Six hundred and forty-five New Zealand children (aged 11–13 years) completed measures corresponding to the integrated model and a self-reported measure of PA one week later. Perceived behavioral control (PBC) and subjective norm were the two strongest predictors of intentions. Task efficacy and barrier efficacy were the two strongest predictors of PA. A second study (Study 2) was conducted to determine whether the self-efficacy measures could discriminate objectively measured PA levels. Sixty-seven Canadian children (aged 11–13 years) completed task and barrier self-efficacy measures. The following week, children classified as ‘high’ (n = 11) and ‘lower’ (n = 7) for both task and barrier efficacy wore an Actical® monitor for seven consecutive days to provide activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) data. Results showed that children with high efficacy expended significantly greater AEE than their lower efficacious counterparts. Findings from these two studies provide support for the use of self-efficacy interventions as a potentially useful means of increasing PA levels among school-aged children.

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Vaughan Roberts, Ralph Maddison, Jane Magnusson, and Harry Prapavessis

Background:

The current study tested the utility of an integrated social cognitive model to predict physical activity (PA) intentions and behavior in New Zealand adolescents.

Method:

Seventy-two adolescents (mean age = 16.92, SD = 0.66) completed measures consistent with the integrated model (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control [PBC], goal intention, task-efficacy, barrier efficacy, and implementation intention). Pedometer data (Yamax SW200 pedometer) were collected for 7 days, and a self-report 7-day recall questionnaire was administered at the end of this week. A series of hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine the contribution of the model to PA goal intention, implementation intention, self-reported and objective PA.

Results:

The integrated model accounted for 41% of goal intention, 33% of implementation intention, and 41% and 18% of subjectively and objectively measured PA, respectively. PBC had the strongest association with goal intention whereas attitude had the strongest association with implementation intention. Task-efficacy made the greatest contribution to objectively measured PA, whereas implementation intention had the strongest association with subjectively measured PA.

Conclusion:

These findings have implications regarding PA measurement in adolescent populations, and suggest that social cognitive variables play an important role in adolescent PA. Recommendations for future research are discussed.

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Ralph Maddison and Harry Prapavessis

There were three aims to the present study: (a) to test a social cognitive model based on self-efficacy and intention in predicting compliance to exercise in a Phase 2 cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program; (b) to examine temporal patterns of self-efficacy in an 18-week exercise CR program; and (c) to ascertain whether the social-cognitive variables act more as determinant or consequence of exercise behavior during the program. Forty-one participants (29 M, 12 F; mean age 63 ± 9 .81 yrs) with documented ischemic heart disease enrolled in an 18-week supervised walking-based Phase 2 CR exercise program. They completed scales assessing self-efficacy and intention at the beginning of the program (Time 1) and again at Weeks 7 (Time 2) and 13 (Time 3). Compliance behavior was assessed through daily attendance and exercise energy expenditure measures, via metabolic equivalents (ACSM Guidelines, 1995). Data provide general support for the social cognitive model. That is, positive and meaningful relationships were found among self-efficacy, intention, and objectively measured exercise behavior, explaining 16 to 59% of the variance. Results also showed that both task and barrier efficacy significantly improved during the early part of the exercise program and then leveled off during program termination. Finally, results suggest that social-cognitive variables act more as a determinant than a consequence of exercise behavior. The findings underscore the need for scale congruence between the measures of self-efficacy, intention, and objective measures of exercise behavior.

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You Fu and Ryan D. Burns

efficacy, barrier efficacy, and enjoyment). Contrasting with these findings, Gao et al 15 used an interactive AVG dance lesson to compare with a traditional physical education tag game in a sample of third- to sixth-grade children from the United States. It was found that the interactive AVG dance lesson

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Koren L. Fisher, Elizabeth L. Harrison, Brenda G. Bruner, Joshua A. Lawson, Bruce A. Reeder, Nigel L. Ashworth, M. Suzanne Sheppard, and Karen E. Chad

-item barriers efficacy scale ( McAuley & Mihalko, 1998 ). Participants were asked to indicate the level of confidence in being physically active in 12 different circumstances using a scale of 0 to 10 (0 = no confidence at all to 10 = completely confident). The self-efficacy score was derived by summing

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Maria-Christina Kosteli, Jennifer Cumming, and Sarah E. Williams

higher barrier efficacy. The BSSES is a valid and reliable measure ( McAuley, 1992 , 1993 ). Interest-enjoyment The Interest-Enjoyment Subscale from the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IES; Ryan, 1982 ) is a 7-item scale, which assesses participants’ enjoyment of exercise participation. Participants

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Christopher R. Hill, Deborah L. Feltz, Stephen Samendinger, and Karin A. Pfeiffer

barriers such as “I have a lot to do” or “I have to say no to friends’ invitations to do other things.” Simultaneous at T1 and T2. PA alone at T3 .23 Foley et al. ( 2008 ) 7th- and 8th-grade students; central Auckland, New Zealand 645 (11.59) PAQ-C; previous 7 days Modified version of the Barrier Efficacy