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Gabriella McLoughlin, Courtney Weisman Fecske, Yvette Castaneda, Candace Gwin and Kim Graber

depth of information gathered. Accordingly, more in-depth qualitative inquiry may elucidate connections between motivations to participate in adapted sport with the facilitators and barriers experienced by this population. Barriers and Facilitators to Adapted Sport Successful implementation of policies

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Melissa N. Galea, Steven R. Bray and Kathleen A. Martin Ginis

This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators associated with walking for exercise among people who experience intermittent claudication. Fifteen individuals (7 men and 8 women) participated in 3 focus groups that were tape-recorded and content analyzed. A social-cognitive framework was used to categorize barriers and facilitators as those related to the person, to the activity, or to the environment. Variables identified included those specific to intermittent claudication and those common among the general population. Barriers to walking included irregular or graded walking surfaces, uncertainty about the outcome of walking, ambiguity regarding pain, the need to take rest breaks, and the presence of leg pain. Facilitating factors included availability of a resting place, use of cognitive coping strategies, companionship support, and availability of a treadmill-walking program. Findings are interpreted in light of current research on exercise determinants and encourage prospective examinations of the predictive validity of these factors for walking.

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Andrea R. Taliaferro and Lindsay Hammond

Individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) tend to have low rates of participation in voluntary or prescribed physical activity. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to identify the barriers, facilitators, and needs influencing physical activity participation of adults with ID within the framework of a social ecological model. A qualitative approach consisted of data collected from surveys and guided focus groups. Participants included adults with ID (n = 6) and their primary caregiver (n = 6). Barriers were categorized under three themes: organizational barriers, individual constraints, and external influences. Examples of subthemes included information dissemination, reliance on others, and caregiver considerations. Facilitators included primary caregivers as champions and camaraderie. Needs centered on family program involvement, improved programmatic structure, and programmatic support. Results indicate the need for community programs to examine barriers and facilitators applicable to their unique setting and population across all levels of a social ecological model.

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Katja Siefken, Grant Schofield and Nico Schulenkorf

Background:

The Pacific region has experienced rapid urbanization and lifestyle changes, which lead to high rates of noncommunicable disease (NCD) prevalence. There is no information on barriers and facilitators for healthy lifestyles in this region. In response, we present the first stage of a rigorous development of an urban Pacific health intervention program. This paper describes formative work conducted in Port Vila, Vanuatu. The objective of this paper was to understand cultural barriers and facilitators in Pacific women to lifestyle change and use the findings to inform future health interventions.

Methods:

Semistructured focus groups with 37 female civil servants divided into 6 groups were held verbally to understand barriers and facilitators for healthy lifestyles.

Results:

Several perceived barriers and facilitators were identified. Inter alia, barriers include financial limitations, time issues, family commitments, environmental aspects, and motivational hindrances that limit time and opportunities for healthy lifestyle behavior. Facilitators include more supportive environments, social support mechanisms, and the implementation of rigorous health policies.

Conclusions:

Formative work is essential in designing health intervention programs. Uncovered barriers and facilitators help inform the development of culturally relevant health interventions.

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Kiruthika Rathanaswami, Enrique Garcia Bengoechea and Paula Louise Bush

The aim of this study was to understand the physical activity (PA) experiences of South Asian women employees and their perceptions of new immigrant South Asian women in regards to barriers and facilitators to participation. This was examined using an interpretive description approach where similarities and differences between South Asian Women’s Centre employees and their perception of new South Asian immigrants were explored. Eight South Asian women employees (Mean age = 45.57 years) working at a South Asian Women’s Centre in Canada participated in this study. Five South Asian women employees participated in a focus group, three in an individual interview and one participant from the focus group took part in a follow-up interview to better understand their PA experiences. Barriers found included: family responsibilities, upbringing, feeling guilty, immediate living environment, clothing, cost, and location of activity. PA facilitators found included: help at home, cultural sports events, group support, female only programs, design of PA facilities, health and self-image benefits, providing PA for children at the same time as adults and collaborations. The main differences found between South Asian Women’s Centre employees and their clients concerned time, language and their partners. For this population of women, programs need to be affordable, close to home, female only and allow their own choice of clothing. The results suggest the importance for those working with South Asian women to take into consideration the many factors between the individual and the environment that may inhibit or facilitate PA behavior change in this population.

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Christina C. Loitz and Nancy Spencer-Cavaliere

Background:

Despite the health benefits associated with physical activity participation, activity levels of North American children are declining. In response, practitioners are placing emphasis on active forms of transportation to and from school. The purpose of this study was to explore the barriers and facilitators to active transportation to school (ATS) from the perspectives of practitioners.

Methods:

The perspectives of 19 practitioners (eg, health promoters, traffic engineers, police, etc.) from 3 communities in Alberta, Canada were captured using focus group interviews followed by content analysis.

Results:

Subthemes tied to barriers included logistics, lifestyle, safety, and lack of resources; while facilitators were comprised of collaboration, education, and leadership. The results were interpreted using an ecological model of health behavior.

Conclusion:

The most common ATS barriers: attitudes and safety concerns, lack of resources and time, and the nature of the natural and built environments were associated with the intrapersonal, organizational, and physical environmental factors, respectively. The most significant organizational facilitators concerned collaboration among parents, schools, businesses, community organizations, and government agencies. While the multifaceted nature of barriers and facilitators add complexity to the issue, it also challenges practitioners to think and act creatively in finding solutions.

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Neng Wan, Ming Wen, Jessie X. Fan, O. Fahina Tavake-Pasi, Sara McCormick, Kirsten Elliott and Emily Nicolosi

Background: Pacific Islanders experience an elevated risk of health conditions such as obesity and diabetes, which are related to a lack of physical activity (PA). However, little attention has been paid to understanding the determinants of PA and promoting PA among this racial/ethnic group in the United States. Methods: We conducted focus group discussions with Tongan Americans, one of the major Pacific Islander groups in the United States, to gain a better understanding of their PA participation patterns, their barriers and facilitators, their attitudes toward PA, and their perceptions of how mobile technologies such as smartphones could help increase their PA levels. Results: Results indicate that although the participants understand the various benefits of PA, they do not engage in much leisure-time PA for exercise purposes. A lack of time is cited as an important reason for insufficient PA participation. In addition, most participants report familiarity with smartphones, positive views of mobile technology, and interest in using smartphones to measure and promote PA. Conclusion: Multiple barriers were related with the low level of PA among Tongan Americans. Mobile technology is a promising way of enhancing PA among Tongan Americans and potentially other Pacific Islander subgroups. Culturally tailored strategies could significantly enhance the effectiveness of PA intervention.

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Viviene A. Temple, P. Lynn Purves, Robyn Misovic, Coral J. Lewis and Carrie DeBoer

Many children with disabling conditions do not acquire the skills to successfully ride a 2-wheeled bicycle. The aim was to describe cycling patterns before and after an innovative learn-to-ride bike camp and factors that facilitate or hinder the generalization of skills developed at camp to home. Parents and children participated in semistructured interviews 3–4 mo postcamp. Transcripts were examined deductively for participation and contextual influences using a template of codes approach. None of the children were successfully riding a 2-wheeled bicycle before camp. Two patterns of participation were evident from narrative descriptions of postcamp riding: “riders” and “not there yet.” Major facilitating factors were the camp itself, the interaction between the camp and the health service, and continued parent involvement. The program transferred well to home for children who were riding independently on the last day of camp. Ongoing support is needed for children “not there yet.”

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Sonja Kalinowski, Ines Wulff, Marita Kölzsch, Kirsten Kopke, Reinhold Kreutz and Dagmar Dräger

Purpose:

To explore different institutional barriers to and facilitators of physical activity (PA) in nursing homes.

Methods:

Cross-sectional survey of 40 German nursing homes and 217 nursing-home residents (NHRs; M ± SD age 80 ± 10.2 yr, 55% women, MMSE ≥20). Quantitative data were collected on the structural characteristics of nursing homes and the PA services available.

Results:

Forms of exercise available were not adequately communicated to residents. Overall participation was below 50%. Awareness was significantly higher in residents with informed relatives (p = .003). A broad range of forms of exercise was generally available (M ± SD 5 ± 2.22, range 0–10), but they were rarely tailored to NHRs’ needs and their effectiveness remains questionable.

Conclusion:

Multidimensional opportunities to promote PA in NHRs are identified.

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Eva A. Jaarsma, Rienk Dekker, Steven A. Koopmans, Pieter U. Dijkstra and Jan H.B. Geertzen

We examined barriers to and facilitators of sports participation in people with visual impairments. Participants registered at Royal Visio, Bartiméus, and the Eye Association were invited to complete a questionnaire (telephone or online). Six hundred forty-eight of the invited participants (13%) completed the questionnaire, and 63% of the respondents reported sports participation. Walking (43%), fitness (34%), and cycling (34%) were frequently mentioned sports. Costs, lack of peers/buddies, and visual impairment were negatively associated with sports participation, whereas higher education and computer (software) use were positively associated. The most important personal barrier was visual impairment; transport was the most important environmental barrier. Active participants also mentioned dependence on others as a personal barrier. The most important personal facilitators were health, fun, and social contacts; support from family was the most important environmental facilitator. To improve sports participation in people with visual impairments, the emphasis in a sports program should be on the positive aspects of sports, such as fun, health, and social contacts.