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Amy E. Burton, Louise Clancy and Lisa Cowap

provide signposting to and guidance on psychological services rather than intervention. This approach fails to consider early assessment of psychological barriers to physical activity requiring intervention before decreases in engagement occur. These psychological barriers must be explored and understood

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Karen C. Smith, Griffin L. Michl, Jeffrey N. Katz and Elena Losina

incentives programs and barriers to physical activity has not been extensively studied. Understanding which factors operate as barriers during a financial incentive program will allow policy makers to improve program design and target incentives around these barriers. To further this end, we examined the

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Amy I. Zlot, John Librett, David Buchner and Tom Schmid

Purpose:

This study examines environmental, transportation, social, and time barriers to physical activity.

Methods:

Survey questions from the nationally representative Greenstyles survey (N = 2181) were summed to create environmental, transportation, social, and time barrier variables. Logistic regression was used to determine if the barrier variables had a significant association with physical activity levels.

Results:

Those who have low barriers to physical activity are more likely to meet the recommended physical activity levels compared with those with medium and high barriers. In addition, transportation, social capital, and time barriers independently contributed to the low levels of physical activity.

Conclusions:

Removal of multiple barriers to physical activity may have an additive effect of increasing physical activity levels in Americans. Promoting physical activity requires strategies and research across multiple sectors to mitigate these barriers.

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Ana Carina Naldino Cassou, Rogerio Fermino, Ciro Romélio Rodriguez Añez, Mariana Silva Santos, Marlos R. Domingues and Rodrigo S. Reis

Background:

The aim of this study was to identify barriers to physical activity among elderly Brazilian women of different socioeconomic status (SES).

Methods:

A focus-group approach was employed. Subjects were aged, on average, 69.9 years (±6.9; n = 25). SES was measured based on a structured interview and women were grouped according to SES classification. Content analysis was used to categorize mentions of barriers to physical activities followed by descriptive analysis of absolute and relative frequencies of similar reports.

Results:

Most common barriers among high-SES elderly women were those within “psychological, cognitive, and emotional” dimensions (33.8%) and “environmental” (29.2%). Among women from lower SES, barriers were inversely ranked, the highest prevalence was verified for environmental (33.8%) and “psychological, cognitive, and emotional” dimensions (25%).

Conclusions:

The results highlight that barriers perception varies according to women’s SES, indicating that physical activity promotion strategies must address such differences.

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Hilda F. Mulligan, Leigh A. Hale, Lisa Whitehead and G. David Baxter

People with disability are insufficiently physically active for health. This study identified the volume, quality, and findings of research that exposes environmental and personal barriers of physical activity participation for people with neurological conditions. CINAHL, Sport Discus, EMBASE, Medline, and AMED were systematically searched between 1999 and week one 2010 for peer reviewed studies that fit the aim of the review. Identified barriers to physical activity participation were categorized into the World Health Organization’s ICF framework of domains. Of the 2,061 studies uncovered in the search, 29 met inclusion criteria and 28 met quality appraisal. Findings showed that barriers to physical activity participation arise from personal factors that, coupled with lack of motivational support from the environment, challenge perceptions of safety and confidence to exercise.

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Bhibha M. Das and Steven J. Petruzzello

Background:

The physical inactivity epidemic continues be one of the greatest public health challenges in contemporary society in the United States. The transportation industry is at greater risk of physical inactivity, compared with individuals in other sectors of the workforce. The aim of this study was to use the Nominal Group Technique, a focus group technique, to examine mass transit employees’ perceptions of the barriers to physical activity at their worksite.

Methods:

Three focus groups (n = 31) were conducted to examine mass transit employees’ perceptions of barriers to physical activity at the worksite.

Results:

Salient barriers included (1) changing work schedules, (2) poor weather conditions, and (3) lack of scheduled and timely breaks.

Conclusions:

Findings were consistent with previous research demonstrating shift work, poor weather, and lack of breaks can negatively impact mass transit employees’ ability to be physically active. Although physical activity barriers for this population have been consistent for the last 20 years, public health practice and policy have not changed to address these barriers. Future studies should include conducing focus groups stratified by job classification (eg, operators, maintenance, and clerical) along with implementing and evaluating worksite-based physical activity interventions and policy changes.

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Phillip M. Gray, Marie H. Murphy, Alison M. Gallagher and Ellen E. A. Simpson

This study explored motives and barriers to physical activity (PA) among older adults of differing socioeconomic status (SES) utilizing a self-determination theory and self-efficacy theory framework. Focus groups (n = 4) were conducted with older adults (n = 28) from two SES groups, using thematic analysis to identify motives and barriers. Integrated and identified regulations and, to a lesser extent, intrinsic motives, were evident across SES groups. Verbal persuasion and affective and physiological states emerged as prominent efficacy sources regardless of SES. More barriers were reported by the low SES group, with health conditions, neighborhood safety, and PA guidelines knowledge emerging as most salient. Time emerged as a prominent barrier for the high SES group. Integrated and identified regulations should be fostered in future interventions and policy regardless of SES. Barriers to PA varied across SES groups; thus future interventions and policy should account for such differences.

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Christopher P. Connolly, Deborah L. Feltz and James M. Pivarnik

Pregnant and postpartum women have reported a number of barriers that prevent them from being sufficiently physically active. Overcoming these barriers is critical to ensure the health benefits of physical activity to both mother and fetus. The primary focus of this review centers on the potential impact social support may have in overcoming each of the primary barriers to physical activity experienced during pregnancy and the postpartum period. A reasonable body of research exists regarding the relationships between social support and these barriers; however, few investigations have specifically attempted to mitigate the effects of these barriers via social support interventions. Within this review, the enabling influence of social support as it pertains to pregnant and postpartum women's physical activity is discussed. Recommendations are suggested for the application of social support in future research investigations involving physical activity during pregnancy and postpartum.

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Aviva Must, Sarah Phillips, Carol Curtin and Linda G. Bandini

Background:

Individual, social, and community barriers to physical activity (PA) experienced by children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) make PA participation more difficult and may contribute to increased screen time.

Methods:

We compared the prevalence of parent-reported barriers to PA among 58 typically developing (TD) children and 53 children with an ASD, 3 to 11 years, and assessed the association between barriers and PA participation and screen time among children with ASD.

Results:

Parents of children with ASD reported significantly more barriers than parents of TD children. Based on parent-report, 60% of children with ASD required too much supervision compared with no TD children (P < .001). Parents of children with ASD were more likely to report that adults lack skills needed to include their child (58%), that their child has few friends (45%), and that other children exclude their child (23%). The number of parent-reported barriers to PA was inversely correlated with the hours spent in PA per year (r = −0.27, P = .05) and positively related to total screen time (r = .32, P < .03).

Conclusions:

These findings underscore the need for community-based PA programs designed to meet the special requirements of this population and policies that compel schools and other government-supported organizations for inclusion and/or targeted programming.

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Danielle R. Brittain, Nancy C. Gyurcsik and Mary McElroy

Despite the health benefits derived from regular participation in moderate physical activity, the majority of adult lesbians are not physically active. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between moderate physical activity and the perceived presence and extent of limitation of 30 general and 10 lesbian-specific barriers. The participants were 516 self-identified adult lesbians who completed a web-based survey. Compared to physically active participants, participants who were insufficiently active reported more general barriers and a significantly higher extent of limitation of general and lesbian-specific barriers overall. Insufficiently active participants also differed in the perceived presence of one of the five most frequently experienced barriers and in the extent of limitation of three of those five barriers. The study’s findings suggest that the impact of barriers may be alleviated through the use of appropriately tailored strategies to help lesbians cope with them. Future research should further examine whether lesbians experience additional population-specific barriers.